# Curriculum

The St. Tammany Parish Public School System created a Guaranteed Curriculum to serve as a written, online document to help ensure uniform, high-quality instructional resources across the School System. The Guaranteed Curriculum is locally developed and is a living document, which is constantly reviewed and revised. The online document is a guide to what teachers should teach and what students should know and be able to do.

## Guaranteed Curriculum Grade Level Unit Descriptions and Standards

## Math

- Grade K
- Grade 1
- Grade 2
- Grade 3
- Grade 4
- Grade 5
- Grade 6
- Grade 7
- Grade 8
- Accelerate to Algebra
- Algebra I
- Algebra II
- Geometry

## Grade K

## Unit 1 Numbers to 10

**Description: **The students will learn numbers to 10 and the count sequence to 20. Students will apply understanding of the relationships between numbers to order, recognize, and make comparisons.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Counting and Cardinality**

**K.CC.3** Write numbers from 0-20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20. (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

**K.CC.4** Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

a. When counting objects in standard order, say the number names as they relate to each object in the group, demonstrating one-to-on correspondence.

b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

**K.CC.5** Count to answer “How many?” questions.

a. Count objects up to 20, arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle.

b. Count objects up to 10 in a scattered configuration.

c. When given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

**K.OA.3** Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g. by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g. 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

**K.MD.3** Classify objects into given categories based on their attributes, count the number of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students match groups of objects with number names, read numbers, use numbers to define more or less, and represent a number of objects with a corresponding numeral from 0 – 10.
- Students count in sequence to at least 20 by ones, and read and write numerals 0 – 10.
- Students apply counting to equivalences of sets, and use comparison vocabulary such as greater than, less than, or equal to compare the number of items in two sets.
- Students describe and analyze objects developing a foundation for understanding our physical environment.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we show that numbers work together?
- How can we show and explain our thinking?

Unit 2 Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Shapes

**Description: **The students will learn to identify, describe and classify two- and three-dimensional shapes in the world. Fluency practice will reinforce counting numbers to 10 and addition and subtraction to 5.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data**

**K.MD.3** Classify objects into given categories based on their attributes, count the number of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

Geometry

**K.MD.3 ** Classify objects into their given categories based on their attributes; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

**K.G.1** Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.

**K.G.2** Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientation or overall size.

**K.G.3** Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three-dimensional (“solid”)

**K.G.4** Analyze and compare two- and three- dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/”corners” and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal lengths).

**K.G.5** Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students describe their physical world by using shapes and their position.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I tell about shapes?
- Where can shapes be found in my world?
- How can I sort and tell about shapes?
- How are shapes alike? Different?

Unit 3 Comparison of Length, Weight, Capacity, and Numbers to 10

**Description:** The students will compare and analyze length, weight, capacity, and numbers. Students will use language such as longer than, shorter than, as long as; heavier than, lighter than, as heavy as; and more than, less than, the same as. This module supports the development of understanding quantities and number sense.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Counting and Cardinality
K.CC.6** Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g. by using matching and counting strategies.

**K.CC.7**Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

**K.OA.3**Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

Measurement and Data

**K.MD.1**Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.

**K.MD.2**Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.

**K.MD.4**Recognize pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters by name and value (e.g., This is a nickel and it is worth 5 cents.)

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students classify objects into given categories, count the number of objects in each category, and sort the categories by count.
- Students apply counting and cardinality to objects in a set and write the corresponding numerals 11 – 20.
- Students identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group by using matching and counting strategies.
- Students describe measurable attributes of objects such as length and weight and can describe several measureable attributes of a single object.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we count? Why do we count?
- Is there more than one way to count?
- How do we classify and group things?
- Why is it important for me to think in numbers?
- How do I show my thinking in different ways?

## Unit 4 Number Pairs, Addition, and Subtraction to 10

**Description:** The students will apply their practiced counting skills and knowledge of the value of numbers to reason about and solve addition and subtraction expressions and equations. Essential understanding to identify number pairs of 6 through 10 is foundational for future learning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

**K.OA.1** Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g. claps).

**K.OA.2** Solve addition and subtraction word problems and add and subtract within 10, e.g. by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

**K.OA.3** Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g. by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g. 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).

**K.OA.4** For any number 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g. by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

**K.OA.5** Fluently add and subtract within 5.

**Counting and Cardinality**

**K.CC.3** Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

**K.CC.4** Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

a. When counting objects in standard order, say the number names as they relate to each object in the group, demonstrating one-to-one correspondence.

b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will count to 100 by ones and tens. They will count objects to 20 and represent that number of objects with a written numeral from 1-20.
- Students will use comparative vocabulary to describe items in two sets between 1–10.
- Students will compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common to see which object has more of/less of the attribute and describe the difference.
- Students will solve addition and subtraction word problems, adding and subtracting within 10 using objects fingers and/or drawings.
- Students will decompose numbers up to 10 into partners in multiple ways (e.g. 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1). They will begin to find a number that makes 10 when given any number from 1 – 9.
- Students will know how things are alike and different, understanding there are many ways to “tell about” a number. They will demonstrate an ability to think in numbers.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we count? Why do we count?
- Is there more than one way to count?
- Why is it important for me to think in numbers?
- How do I show my thinking in different ways?
- How can I compare numbers?
- How can I use concrete objects to add and subtract in a story problem?

Unit 5 Numbers 10 – 20 and Counting to 100

**Description:** The students will focus on representing numbers 10-20, and counting to 100. They will develop understanding of a “ten” and a “ten and some ones.” Understanding is developed through fluencies incorporating the Say Ten way (11= “ten, one” 12= “ten, two”).

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Counting and Cardinality
K.CC.1** Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

**K.CC.2**Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

**K.CC.3**Write numbers from 0 – 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0 – 20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

**K.CC.4**Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

a. When counting objects in standard order, say the number names as they relate to each object in the group, demonstrating one-to-one correspondence.

b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

**K.CC. 5**Count to answer “How many?” questions.

a. Count objects up to 20, arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle.

b. Count objects up to 10 in a scattered configuration.

c. When given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.

**K.CC.6**Identify whether the number of objects in one group is less than, greater than, or equal to the amount of objects in another group.

**Number and Operations in Based Ten**

**K.NBT.1**Gain understanding of place value.

a. Understand that the numbers 11–19 are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.

b. Compose and decompose numbers 11 to 19 using place value (e.g., by using objects or drawings).

c. Record each composition or decomposition using a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 is one ten and eight ones, 18 = 1 ten + 8 ones, 18 = 10 + 8).

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will count to 100 by ones and tens. They will count objects to 20 and represent that number of objects with a written numeral from 1-20.
- Students will use comparative vocabulary to describe items in two sets between 1–20.
- Students will compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common to see which object has more of/less of the attribute and describe the difference. They will be introduced to solving addition and subtraction word problems and to adding and subtracting within 10 using objects fingers and/or drawings.
- Students will decompose numbers up to 20 into partners in multiple ways (e.g. 12 = 10 + 2 and 12 = 7 + 5). They will begin to find a number that makes 20 when given any number from 1 – 19.
- Students will gain an understanding of place value by composing and decomposing teen numbers in addition sentences.
- Students will record each composition or decomposition using a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 is one ten and eight ones, 18 = 1 ten + 8 ones, 18 = 10 + 8).

### Essential Questions:

- What is base ten and how can it be used?
- What are different ways to represent a number?
- How do we count? Why do we count?
- Is there more than one way to count?
- Why is it important for me to think in numbers?
- How do I show my thinking in different ways?
- How can I compare numbers?
- How can I use concrete objects to add and subtract in a story problem?

## Unit 6 Analyzing, Comparing, and Composing Shapes

**Description:** The students will analyze, compare, and compose two- and three- dimensional shapes. They further develop their spatial reasoning skills to lay foundations in understanding area through composition of geometric figures.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Counting and Cardinality**

**K.CC.4** Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

a. When counting objects in standard order, say the number names as they relate to each object in the group, demonstrating one-to-one correspondence.

b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

**K.OA.5** Fluently add and subtract within 5.

Geometry

**K.G.4** Analyze and compare two- and three- dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/”corners” and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal lengths).

**K.G.5** Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., stick and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

**K.G.6** Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?”

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students describe their world by using shapes and their position.
- Students identify two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes based on their attributes.
- Students sort shapes in different ways.
- Students tell how shapes are alike and how they are different.
- Students use small shapes to make larger shapes.
- Students draw two-dimensional shapes.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I tell about shapes?
- Where can shapes be found in my world?
- How can I sort and tell about shapes?
- How are shapes alike? Different?
- How can I use two-dimensional shapes to make new shapes?

## Grade 1

## Unit 1 Sums and Differences to 10

**Description:** Students work with numbers to 10 while making progress to understand the meaning of addition and subtraction, within the context of the Grade 1-word problem situations. They begin building fluency with addition and subtraction facts.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations in Base Ten
1.OA.1** Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**1.OA.3**Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 =11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12 (Associative property of addition.)

**1.OA.4**Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.

**1.OA.5**Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

**1.OA.6**Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

**1.OA.7**Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.

**1.OA.8**Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 + ? = 11, 5 = ÿ

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will be able to extend the counting sequence to 120 starting at any number less than 120.
- Students will count by 1s, 5s, and 10s.
- Students will relate counting up to addition and counting back to subtraction.
- Students will read and write numbers in the range of 1 – 120 and build number sense by developing an understanding of the order of the counting numbers.
- Students will be able to represent a number of objects with a written numeral.
- Students will understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we show that numbers work together?
- How can we show and explain our thinking?
- How does understanding numbers help me?

## Unit 2 Introduction to Place Value through Addition and Subtraction Within 20

**Description:** Students add and subtract within 20. Work begins by modeling “adding and subtracting across ten” in word problems and with equations. Students transition to conceptualizing ten as a single unit (using 10 linking cubes stuck together, for example), which is a key foundational step in understanding place value.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking
1.OA.1** Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, take from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**1.OA.2**Solve word problems that call for addition of three whole numbers whose sum is less than or equal to 20, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**1.OA.3**Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract. Examples: If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 =11 is also known. (Commutative property of addition.) To add 2 + 6 + 4, , the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12 (Associative property of addition.)

**1.OA.4**Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.

**1.OA.5**Relate counting addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

**1.OA.6**Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use mental strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 –1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13.

**1.OA.7**Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 – 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.

**1.OA.8**Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations: 8 + ? = 11, 5 = __ - 3, 6 + 6 = __

**1.NBT.2**Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will understand the relationship between addition and subtraction.
- Students will understand the part and whole relationships within numbers.
- Students will compose and decompose the numbers 1 to 10.
- Students can solve various types of word problems using objects, drawings, and symbols.
- Students will develop fact fluency for addition and subtraction within 10.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we show that numbers work together?
- How can we show and explain our thinking?
- How does understanding numbers help me?
- How does drawing pictures and words help me understand numbers?
- How can a problem be solved in a different way?

## Unit 3 Ordering and Comparing Length Measurements as Numbers

**Description:** Students focus on measuring and comparing lengths to build upon prior experiences of direct length comparison. Students will explore new learning of indirect comparison by comparing the length of one object to the length of two other objects. Students will learn about the centimeter prior to exploring non-standard units of measurement. The module concludes with students actively measuring to representing data collected and sorted into categories.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking
1.OA.1** Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Measurement and Data

**1.MD.1**Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

**1.MD.2**Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-sized length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.

**1.MD.4**Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students understand the concept of length.
- Students compare and order objects by lengths.
- Students measure the length of objects using non-standard units. Students will tell and write time in hours and half-hours.
- Students organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I make a good decision?
- Why is it important to show my thinking in different ways?
- How is it helpful for everyone to understand the same ideas?
- How can I decide which tools to use?
- Why do I need to measure things?

## Unit 4 Place Value, Comparison, Addition and Subtraction to 40

**Description:** Students focus on the structure of our number system by using place value to add and subtract numbers within 40. Connecting to the work within Module 2, students return to establishing “ten” as a unit that can be counted. Students begin to see a problem like 23 + 6 as an opportunity to separate the “2 tens” in 23 and concentrate on the familiar addition problem 3 + 6. Students compare quantities by using symbols to identify the greater than or less than amount.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten
1.OA.1** Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**1.NBT.1**Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

**1.NBT.2**Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones.

**1.NBT.3**Compare two two-digit numbers based on meaning of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

**1.NBT.4**Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10.

a. Use concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a number sentence; justify the reasoning used with a written explanation.

b. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

**1.NBT.5**Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

**1.NBT.6**Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero difference), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will solve various types of addition and subtraction word problems and equations using strategies.
- Students will use place value to compare two numbers.
- Students will add two-digit and one-digit numbers with and without composing a group of ten.
- Students will develop strategies for adding and subtracting whole numbers.

### Essential Questions:

- What happens when we join two quantities or take one from another?
- How can we find the total when we join two quantities?
- How can we find what is left when we take one quantity from another?
- How can we find the difference when we compare one quantity to another?
- How can we compare one quantity to another?
- How can we represent problem situations?
- How can we show that addition and subtraction are related?

## Unit 5 Identifying, Composing, and Partitioning Shapes

**Description:** Students think about attributes of shapes and practice composing and decomposing geometric shapes. Students connect to part-whole relationships through geometry, and then connect understanding to tell time to the hour and half-hour. Daily fluencies with addition and subtraction continues.

###

Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement
1.MD.3** Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks. Recognize and identify coins, their names, and their values.

**Geometry**

1.G.1Distinguish between defining attributes (e.g, triangles are closed and three-sided) versus non-defining attributes (e.g., color, orientation, overall size); build and draw shapes to possess defining attributes.

1.G.1

**1.G.2**Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) and three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape. (Note: Students do not need to learn the formal names such as right rectangular prisms.)

**1.G.3**Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, fourths, and quarters, and use the phrases half of, fourth of, and quarter of. Describe the whole as two of or four of the shares. Understand for these examples that decomposing into more equal shares creates smaller shares.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will identify two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes based on defining attributes of the shape.
- Students will use two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes to compose new shapes.
- Students will decompose two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes to create new shapes, with a focus on decomposing circles and rectangles into halves and fourths.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I tell about shapes?
- Where can shapes be found in my world?
- How can I sort and tell about shapes?
- How are shapes alike? Different?
- How can I use two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes to compose new shapes?

## Unit 6 Place Value, Comparison, Addition, and Subtraction to 100

**Description:** Students represent comparative word problem situations using tape diagrams, while extending their learning of tens and ones to numbers to 100. They will add pairs of two-digit numbers that will have a sum greater than 10 in the ones digit focusing on drawings, numbers, and words to solve. Students solidify their understanding by sharing and explaining strategies and reasoning used to solve varied problem types.

## Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking
K.CC.4** Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

a. When counting objects in standard order, say the number names as they relate to each object in the group, demonstrating one-to-one correspondence.

b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.

c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.

Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

**K.OA.5**Fluently add and subtract within 5.

Geometry

**1.NBT.1**Count to 120, starting at any number less than 120. In this range, read and write numerals and represent a number of objects with a written numeral.

**1.NBT.2**Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones.

**1.NBT.3**Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

**1.NBT.4**Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10.

a. Use concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a number sentence; justify the reasoning used with a written explanation.

b. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.

**1.NBT.5**Given a two-digit number, mentally find 10 more or 10 less than the number, without having to count; explain the reasoning used.

**1.NBT.6**Subtract multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 from multiples of 10 in the range 10-90 (positive or zero difference), using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used.

**Measurement**

**1.MD.3**Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.

**1.MD.5**Determine the value of a collection of coins up to 50 cents. (Pennies, nickels, dimes and quarters in isolation; not to include a combination of different coins.)

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will solve different types of addition and subtraction word problems and equations using different strategies.
- Students will use place value to compare two numbers.
- Students will add two-digit and one-digit numbers with and without composing a group of ten.
- Students will represent numbers greater than 10 as the sum of all the tens and the ones.
- Students will name numbers greater than 10 in more than one way.

### Essential Questions:

- What happens when we join two quantities or take one from another?
- How can we find the total when we join two quantities?
- How can we find what is left when we take one quantity from another?
- How can we find the difference when we compare one quantity to another?
- How can we compare one quantity to another?
- How can I solve different types of addition and subtraction word problems using different strategies?
- How do I explain my answer so that others understand my thinking?

## Grade 2

## Unit 1 Sums and Differences to 20

**Description:** Students will master sums and differences to 20. Fluency of addition and subtraction within 10 and extensive experience working with numbers to 100 is developed. Students will review 1st grade strategies such as, addition and subtraction properties, counting on and counting back, make a ten, subtracting zero, missing addends, and fact families. Students learn to represent and solve word problems using addition and subtraction: a practice that will also continue throughout the year.

**Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)**

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

**2.OA.1** Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**2.OA.2** Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers.

**Number and Operation in Base Ten**

**2.NBT.5** Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will use numbers to help answer everyday questions, such as, “how many” and “how much”.
- Students will think about numbers and how they are used in different ways.
- Students will show numbers in different ways.
- Students will solve problems in more than one way.
- Addition and subtraction are opposite operations.
- Students will compose and decompose numbers.
- Knowing basic facts helps to solve other problems.

### Essential Questions:

- What are different ways we can show or make (represent) a number?
- Why do I use numbers to show “how much” and “how many”?
- How can I solve the same problem in more than one way?
- How are addition and subtraction opposite operations?
- How can I compose and decompose a number?
- How can I use the basic facts to solve other problems?

## Unit 2 Addition and Subtraction of Two-Digit Numbers

**Description:** Students will expand conceptual understanding of measurement and relating addition and subtraction to length. Students will fluently add and subtract within 100 utilizing properties of operations and relationships between addition and subtraction. They will represent addition and subtraction word problem situations using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data
2.MD.1** Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

**2.MD.2**Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen.

**2.MD.3**Estimate lengths using inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.

**2.MD.4**Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.

**2.MD.5**Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same

units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**2.MD.6**Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, ..., and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Students will relate addition and subtraction to length using different strategies.
- Students will measure accurately using different measuring tools.
- Students will use different measuring tools to help others measure accurately.
- Students will create mental benchmarks for measuring.
- Students will measure and compare how much longer one object is than another.

### Essential Questions:

- How are addition and subtraction related to length using different strategies?
- How can I measure accurately using different measuring tools?
- What mental benchmarks for measuring do I use?
- How do I compare to determine how much longer one object is than another?

## Unit 3 Place Value, Counting, and Comparison of Numbers to 1,000

**Description:** Students extend and apply their understanding of place value to read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Students will compare numbers to 1000 by using <, >, and = to record the results of comparisons.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operation in Base Ten
2.NBT.1** Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:

a. 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens – called a “hundred.”

b. The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).

**2.NBT.2**Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s and 100s.

**2.NBT.3**Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

**2.NBT.4**Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Place value is based on groups of ten.
- Place value allows us to use 10 digits to express numbers up to and beyond 1000; the location of a digit in a number determines its value.
- The value of a digit depends upon its place in a number.
- Numbers can be represented in many ways, such as with base ten blocks, words, pictures, number lines, and expanded form.
- Place value determines which numbers are larger or smaller than other numbers.

### Essential Questions:

- How does the position of a digit in a number effect its value?
- Why do numbers have place value?
- How can numbers be expressed, ordered and compared?
- Why should we understand place value?
- What is the difference between place and value?
- How does place value help us solve problems?
- How does the value of a digit change when its position in a number changes?
- What does “0” represent in a number?

## Unit 4 Addition and Subtraction within 200 with Word Problems to 100

**Description:** Students apply their work with place value units to develop conceptual understanding of addition and subtraction within 200 moving from concrete to pictorial to abstract. This work deepens their understanding of base-ten, place value, and the properties of operations while also applying knowledge to one-step and two-step word problem situations. Students also continue to develop one of the required fluencies of the grade: addition and subtraction within 100.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking
2.OA.A.1** Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

**2.NBT.5**Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

**2.NBT.6**Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

**2.NBT.7**Add and subtract within 1000 using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; justify the reasoning used with a written explanation. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.

**2.NBT.8**Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900.

**2.NBT.9**Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.

### Enduring Understandings:

- When one quantity is joined or added on to another quantity, the result is greater than or equal to the initial quantity.
- When one quantity is removed from another quantity, the result is less than or equal to the initial quantity.
- Joining, removing, part-part-whole, and comparing problems can be modeled.
- Addition and subtraction can be composed and decomposed to simplify the operation.
- Mental math strategies may be used to solve problems involving numbers.
- Problems can be solved in a variety of ways such as modeling, number bonds, tape diagrams, counting strategies, or standard algorithms.
- Problems and solutions can use various representations, including concrete objects, pictures, number sentences, and words.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we use addition and subtraction to tell number stories?
- How does using ten as a benchmark number help us add and subtract?
- How can we solve addition problems with and without composing?
- How can we solve subtraction problems with and without decomposing?
- How can strategies help us when adding and subtracting?
- How are addition and subtraction alike and how are they different?
- How do we solve problems in different ways?
- How can problem situations and problem-solving strategies be represented?
- How are problem-solving strategies alike and different?

Unit 5 Addition and Subtraction Within 1000 with Word Problems to 100

**Description: **Students use place value strategies, manipulatives, and math drawings to extend their conceptual understanding of the addition and subtraction algorithms to numbers within 1000. They maintain addition and subtraction fluency within 100 through daily application problems to solve one- and two-step word problems of all types. Students use place value reasoning to explain why their addition and subtraction strategies work. Students will identify and select strategies that are most efficient for solving a given problem.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operation in Base Ten
2.NBT.7** Add and subtract within 1000 using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; justify the reasoning used with a written explanation. Understand that in adding or subtracting three-digit numbers, one adds or subtracts hundreds and hundreds, tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose or decompose tens or hundreds.

**2.NBT.8**Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900.

**2.NBT.9**Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.

### Enduring Understandings:

- When one quantity is joined or added on to another quantity, the result is greater than or equal to the initial quantity.
- When one quantity is removed from another quantity, the result is less than or equal to the initial quantity.
- Joining, removing, part-part-whole, and comparing problems can be modeled.
- Addition and subtraction can be composed and decomposed to simplify the operation.
- Mental math strategies may be used to solve problems involving numbers.
- Problems can be solved in a variety of ways such as modeling, number bonds, tape diagrams, counting strategies, or standard algorithms.
- Problems and solutions can use various representations, including concrete objects, pictures, number sentences, and words.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we use addition and subtraction to tell number stories?
- How does using ten as a benchmark number help us add and subtract?
- How can we solve addition problems with and without composing?
- How can we solve subtraction problems with and without decomposing?
- How can strategies help us when adding and subtracting?
- How are addition and subtraction alike and how are they different?
- How do we solve problems in different ways?
- How can strategies help us when adding and subtracting?
- How can problem situations and problem-solving strategies be represented?
- How are problem-solving strategies alike and different?

## Unit 6 Foundations of Multiplication and Division

**Description:** Students will develop conceptual understanding for multiplication and division by initially making equal groups with concrete materials. Progression is made by drawing pictorial representations to illustrate a corresponding repeated addition equation. Students use repeated addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns. They will also write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking
2.OA.3** Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

**2.OA.4**Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

**Geometry**

2.G.2Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them.

2.G.2

### Enduring Understandings:

- There are similarities between skip counting and repeated addition.
- Repeatedly adding the same quantity, using a grouping picture, or forming a rectangular array are strategies for representing repeated addition equations.
- One way of representing both repeated addition and skip counting is using arrays.
- Even and odd numbers can be explained using manipulatives.
- An even number can be decomposed into two equal addends.
- Double addition facts assist in recognizing even numbers.

### Essential Questions:

- How are odd and even number lines identified on the number line?
- How do I determine if a number is odd or even?
- What strategies can I use to tell if a number is odd or even?
- How are arrays and repeated addition related?
- How can rectangular arrays help us with repeated addition?
- How can we model repeated addition on the number line?
- How can we a model repeated addition equation with an array?
- How does skip counting help us solve repeated addition problems?
- What is an array?
- What is repeated addition?

## Unit 7 Problem Solving with Length, Money, and Data

**Description:** Students practice addition and subtraction strategies within 100 and problem-solving skills with money, measurement, and data. Students will measure and estimate length in the context of units from both the customary system (e.g., inches and feet) and the metric system (e.g., centimeters and meters). As they study money and length, students represent measurement and money data using picture graphs, bar graphs, and line plots.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data
2.MD.1** Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

**2.MD.2**Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different lengths for the two measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen.

**2.MD.3**Estimate lengths using inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.

**2.MD.4**Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.

**2.MD.5**Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**2.MD.6**Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, …, and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.

**2.MD.8**Solve word problems involving dollar-bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately.

**2.MD.9**Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

**2.MD.10**Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

2.OA.A.1Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

2.OA.A.1

Numbers and Operations in Base Ten

**2.NBT.5**Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Measurement is a way to describe and compare objects or ideas. A specific process is used to measure attributes.
- Standard measurement allows us to communicate with others to describe the physical world.
- Measurement is a consistent duration and distance.
- The length of objects can be measured using customary units or Metric units.
- A reasonable estimate is one that is close to the actual measurement.
- Line plots are useful tools for collecting data because they show the number of things along a numeric scale.
- We collect and use data to help us answer questions and make decisions.

### Essential Questions:

- What properties can be measured (length, height, volume, width, area, weight, time, money and temperature)?
- How do we measure (unit, tool, and process)?
- What standard units are necessary?
- How do we use different types of measurements?
- What are tools of measurement and how are they used?
- When should you estimate? When do you need an exact answer? What makes a useful estimate?
- What information can we gather from data, charts, and graphs?
- How do we conduct a survey?
- How can we gather and organize data?
- How can we represent the data we gather?

## Unit 8 Time, Shapes, and Fractions as Equal Parts of Shapes

**Description:** Students extend and apply knowledge of part-whole relationships by investigating, describing, and reasoning about the composition and decomposition of shapes. Students will tell and write time from the analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes. Students construct simple clocks to visualize the relationship of partitioning a circle into quarters and halves, while decomposing 60 minutes.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement
2.MD.7** Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.

**Geometry**

2.G.1Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes. (Sizes are compared directly or visually, not compared by measuring.)

2.G.1

**2.G.3**Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.

**Numbers and Operations in Base Ten**

**2.NBT.2**Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s

### Enduring Understandings:

- Geometric figures can be described.
- Geometric figures are found in our world.
- The length of time can be measured using standard units (seconds, minutes, hours, and days).
- An analog clock can be used to tell time to the nearest five minutes.
- Fractional parts are equal shares of a whole number, whole object, or a whole set.
- The more equal sized pieces that form a whole, the smaller the pieces (fraction) will be.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we describe geometric figures?
- Where can we find geometric figures in the world around us?
- Is time important? Why?
- How can we tell if an estimate is reasonable?
- How do we show an equal part of something?
- How are numbers used to show fractions?
- How to use fractions in everyday life?
- How do we know how many fractional parts make a whole?

## Grade 3

## Unit 1 Properties of Multiplication and Division and Solving Problems with Units 2-5 and 10

**Description:** Students will build upon the foundation of multiplicative thinking with units started in Grade 2. Students begin by understanding the meaning of multiplication and division. They develop fluency for learning products involving factors of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10. The restricted set of facts supports learning by providing examples to solve one- and two-step word problems.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

**3.OA.A.1** Interpret products of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 5 × 7 as the total number of objects in 5 groups of 7 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a total number of objects can be expressed as 5×7.

**3.OA.A.2** Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8.

**3.OA.A.3** Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**3.OA.A.4** Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = □ ÷ 3, 6 × 6 = ?

**3.OA.B.5 **Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3× 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.)

**3.OA.B.6** Understand division as an unknown-factor problem. For example, find 32 ÷ 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.

**3.OA.C.7** Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

**3.OA.D.8** Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Multiplication and division can be shown in different ways.
- Mental pictures help us remember facts and ideas.
- Knowing and understanding multiplication helps us understand division.
- Problems can be solved using multiplication and division.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I solve multiplication and division problems in different ways?
- How do mental models help me remember?
- How can multiplication and division help me solve problems?
- How can working a problem help me better understand the answer?

## Unit 2 Place Value and Problem Solving using Addition and Subtraction with Units of Measure

**Description:** Students use place value understanding to round whole numbers. Students will add and subtract using strategies and algorithms. Students will solve one- and two-step word problems involving addition and subtraction, units of measure and telling time. Students will continue to practice fluency of basic facts involving factors of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 and their related division facts.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations in Base Ten
3.NBT.1** Use place value understanding to round whole numbers to the nearest 10 or 100.

**3.NBT.2**Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

**Measurement and Data**

3.MD.1Understand time to the nearest minute.

3.MD.1

a. Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes, within 60 minutes, on an analog and digital clock.

b. Calculate elapsed time greater than 60 minutes to the nearest quarter and half hour on a number line diagram.

c. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

**3.MD.2**Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.

### Enduring Understandings:

Place Value and Rounding…

- Estimation helps us see whether or not our answers are reasonable.
- Using rounding is an appropriate estimation strategy for solving problems and estimating.

Addition and Subtraction…

- Addition and subtraction are inverse operations.
- Addition means the joining of two or more sets that may or may not be the same size. The counting up strategy can be used to make change.
- Subtraction denotes finding the difference between sets or comparing sets.

Measurement…

- The duration of an event is called elapsed time and it can be measured.
- Mass and volume are important parts of everyday life and can determined a variety of ways.

### Essential Questions:

- Does rounding a number change its value relative to other numbers?
- How are addition and subtraction alike and how are they different?
- How can I show what I know about addition and subtraction, problem solving, and estimation?
- How can I use what I know about addition and subtraction to help me solve problems?
- How can I use what I understand about money to solve word problems?
- How do we round numbers to the nearest ten or hundred?
- How is rounding used in everyday life?
- What strategies can I use to help me tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes?
- Why is measurement important in my everyday life?

## Unit 3 Multiplication and Division with Units of 0, 1, 6–9, and Multiples of 10

**Description:** Students will extend their work with factors to include all units from 0 to 10, as well as multiples of 10 within 100. Skip-counting strategies as well as the distributive and associative property is applied. Word problem situations are presented providing opportunities to analyze and model efficiently.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking
3.OA.3** Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

**3.OA.4**Determine the unknown whole number in a multiplication or division equation relating three whole numbers. For example, determine the unknown number that makes the equation true in each of the equations 8 × ? = 48, 5 = ∆ ÷ 3, 6 × 6 =?.

**3.OA.5**Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.)

**3.OA.6**Understand division as an unknown‐factor problem. For example, find 32 8 by finding the number that makes 32 when multiplied by 8.

**3.OA.7**Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers.

**3.OA.8**Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

**3.OA.9**Identify arithmetic patterns (including patterns in the addition table or multiplication table), and explain them using properties of operations. For example, observe that 4 times a number is always even, and explain why 4 times a number can be decomposed into two equal addends.

**Number and Operation in Base Ten**

3.NBT.3Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

3.NBT.3

### Enduring Understandings:

- Multiplication can be shown in different ways.
- Mental pictures help me remember facts and ideas.
- Knowing and understanding multiplication helps us understand division.
- Multiplication and division can help us solve problems.
- Unfamiliar multiplication problems can be solved by using known multiplication facts and properties, e.g., 8 x 7 = (8 x 2) + (8 x 5)

### Essential Questions:

- Why is multiplication necessary?
- How can I show how to solve a multiplication problem in different ways?
- Why do mental models help me remember?
- How can multiplication and division help me solve problems?
- How can working a problem help me better understand the answer?
- What operation can we use to solve the problem and why?
- How is multiplication related to division and other operations?

## Unit 4 Multiplication and Area

**Description:** Students explore properties of operations and investigate area. Students measure the area of a shape by finding the total number of same-size units of area, e.g. tiles, required to cover the shape without gaps or overlaps. Connections are made to multiplication while solving problems involving area.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data
3.MD.5** Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement:

a. A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area.

b. A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.

**3.MD.6**Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

**3.MD.7**Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

a. Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

b. Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.

c. Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.

### Enduring Understandings:

- The space inside a rectangle or square can be measured in square units.
- There are several strategies that we can use for finding area:
- Multiply side lengths
- Break apart and distribute
- It is important to know the best strategy to use for the problem.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the area?
- Why is it important to know area in real life?
- What strategies can I use to determine the area of an object?
- How is area used in the world?

## Unit 5 Fractions as Numbers on the Number Line

**Description: **Students transition from thinking of fractions as area or parts of a figure to points on a number line. Once the unit “1 fourth” has been established, counting them is as easy as counting whole numbers: 1 fourth, 2 fourths, 3 fourths, 4 fourths, 5 fourths, etc. Students compare fractions, find equivalent fractions in special cases, and solve problems that involve fractions.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations – Fractions**

**3.NF.1** Understand a fraction 1/b, with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8, as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a part of size 1/b.

**3.NF.2** Understand a fraction with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 as a number on a number line diagram.

a. Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.

b. Represent a fraction a/b on a number line diagram by marking off the length 1/b from 0. Recognize that the resulting interval has size a/b and that its endpoint locates the number a/b on the number line.

**3.NF.3** Explain equivalence of fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

a. Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line. (Grade 3 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8.)

b. Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3. Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

c. Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form of 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.

d. Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

**Geometry
3.G.2** Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part is 1/4 of the area of the shape.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Fractional parts are equal shares of a whole or a whole set.
- The fraction name (half, third, etc.) indicates the number of equal parts in the whole.
- The more equal sized pieces that form a whole, the smaller the pieces of the whole become.
- Fractions can be represented on a number line.
- Fractions can be compared by drawing a model or representation on a number line.
- When the numerator and denominator are the same number, the fraction equal one whole.
- Whole numbers can be renamed as fractions.

### Essential Questions:

- What is a fraction?
- How do I represent a fraction on a number line?
- What fractions are on the number line between 0 and 1?
- How can I compare fractions? When we compare two fractions, how do we know which has a greater value?
- How can I represent fractions of different sizes?
- How can I show that one fraction is greater (or less) than another?
- How can I use fractions to name parts of a whole?
- How does the numerator impact the denominator on the number line?
- What are the important features of a unit fraction?
- How are fractions used in problem-solving situations?

## Unit 6 Geometry and Measurement Word Problems

**Description:** Students will be presented with opportunities to practice solving word problems, as well as active exploration with geometry and perimeter. Students solve one- and two-step problems including all four operations providing an opportunity to make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data
2.G.2** Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them.

**Geometry**

3.G.1Understand that shapes in different categories (e.g., rhombuses, rectangles, and others) may share attributes (e.g., having four sides), and that the shared attributes can define a larger category (e.g., quadrilaterals). Recognize rhombuses, rectangles, and squares as examples of quadrilaterals, and draw examples of quadrilaterals that do not belong to any of these subcategories.

3.G.1

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

3.OA.8Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.

3.OA.8

### Enduring Understandings:

- Geometry requires visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling to solve problems.
- Objects have distinct attributes that can be measured.
- Measurement describes the attributes of objects and events.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we use geometry to help us make sense of the world?
- How does measurement keep our world organized?
- What is a precise measurement?
- Why do we measure and why do we need standardized units of measurement?
- What types of problems are solved with measurement and geometry?

## Unit 7 Collecting and Displaying Data

**Description:** Students apply their knowledge of fractions from Unit 5 as they estimate lengths to the nearest halves and fourths of an inch and record that information in bar graphs and line plots. Students answer “how many more” and “how many less” questions about scaled bar graphs.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data
3.MD.3** Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step “how many more” and “how many less” problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets.

**3.MD.4**Generate measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Show the data by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in appropriate units—whole numbers, halves, or quarters.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Charts, tables, line plot graphs, pictographs, Venn diagrams, and bar graphs may be used to display data.
- One way to compare data is through the use of graphs.
- The scale increments used when making a bar graph is determined by the scale intervals being graphed.

### Essential Questions:

- How are tables, bar graphs, and line plot graphs useful ways to display data?
- How do I decide what increments to use for my scale?
- How can you use graphs to answer a question?
- How can surveys be used to collect data and answer questions?
- How can graphs be used to display and compare data gathered from a survey?
- How can data displayed in tables and graphs be used to inform?
- How are a bar graph and a line plot related? What are their differences?

## Grade 4

## Unit 1 Place Value, Rounding, and Algorithms for Addition and Subtraction

**Description:** In unit 1, students use place value charts and number lines to extend their work with whole numbers to 1,000,000. Using a place value chart, they build their knowledge of the pattern, times ten. Students read and write multi-digit whole numbers in different forms. They round and compare whole numbers using appropriate symbols. The standard algorithm for addition and subtraction should be mastered. Extending students previous understanding of perimeter of rectangles is one way students apply the addition and subtraction algorithm. Students also apply addition and subtraction as they solve multi-step word problems by representing the problems using equations with a variable, and verify solutions using various estimation strategies and mental computation.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations in Base Ten
Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers.
4.NBT.1** Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number less than or equal to 1,000,000, a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right. For example, (1) recognize that 700 ÷ 70 = 10; (2) in the number 7,246, the 2 represents 200, but in the number 7,426 the 2 represents 20, recognizing that 200 is ten times as large as 20, by applying concepts of place value and division.

**4.NBT.2**Read and write multi-digit whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

**4.NBT.3**Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers, less than or equal to 1,000,000, to any place.

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

**4.NBT.4**Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers with sums less than or equal to 1,000,000, using the standard algorithm.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

4.OA.1Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison and represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that is 35 is 5 times as many as 7, and 7 times as many as 5.

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

4.OA.1

**4.OA.3**Solve multi-step word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. Example: Twenty-five people are going to the movies. Four people fit in each car. How many cars are needed to get all 25 people to the theater at the same time?

### Enduring Understandings:

- Our place value system is based on groups of ten.
- Estimation can help me determine whether or not my answer is reasonable.
- Knowing the value of digits helps me compare and round numbers.
- Composing and decomposing numbers helps me add and subtract using the standard algorithm.
- Addition and subtraction are inverse operations.
- Solving word problems requires perseverance.
- Math thinkers use their understanding, knowledge and skills to solve problems.

### Essential Questions:

- What determines the value of a digit?
- How do we use place value to compare large numbers?
- What are the different forms we use to write numbers?
- How can I use what I know about addition and subtraction to solve a real world problem?
- How do I compose and decompose numbers when using a standard algorithm?

## Unit 2 Unit Conversions and Problem Solving with Metric Measurement

**Description: **Unit 2 focuses on length, mass, and capacity in the metric system. Place value serves as a guide for moving between larger and smaller units. Students will review place value concepts while building fluency with decomposing, or converting from larger to smaller units. Conversions will be recorded in a two-column table. Prior knowledge of grams, kilograms, meters, and centimeters will be used as students learn the relative sizes of measurement units. Emphasis will be placed on applying unit conversions as students solve multi-step word problems involving distances, liquid volumes, and masses of objects.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data: Supporting Cluster
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
4.MD.A.1** Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including ft, in, km, m, cm; kg, g; lb., oz.; l, ml; hr., min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. (Conversions are limited to one-step conversions.) Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft. is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express length of a 4 ft. snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ….

**4.MD.A.2**Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving whole numbers and/or simple fractions (addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators and multiplying a fraction times a fraction or a whole number), and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

### Enduring Understandings:

- One unit of measurement can be compared to another within a single system of measurement.
- Measurement can be used to solve problems.
- There can be different strategies to solve a problem, but some are more effective and efficient than others.
- A problem solver understands what has been done, knows why the process was appropriate, and can support it with reasons and evidence.

### Essential Questions:

- How can we compare one unit of measurement to another unit of measurement within the same system?
- How can measurement be used to solve problems?
- How do I decide what strategy will work best in a given problem situation?
- How does explaining my process help me to understand a problem’s solution better?

Unit 3 Multi-Digit Multiplication and Division

**Description:** Students multiply a single-digit number times a multi-digit number and a two-digit number by a two-digit number. Strategies such as the standard algorithm, arrays, area models, and mental strategies as well as properties of multiplication will be used to multiply. Students also model, write and explain division by one-digit divisors, and continue to become fluent with basic facts. Problem solving situations are used whenever possible including problems involving measurement. Area of rectangles provides one context for developing such understanding.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations in Base Ten
Use place value understanding to perform multi-digit arithmetic.
4.NBT.5** Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**4.NBT.6**Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

4.OA.1Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison and represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7, and 7 times as many as 5.

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

4.OA.1

**4.OA.2**Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and/or equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison (Example: 6 times as many vs. 6 more than).

**4.OA.3**Solve multi-step word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. Example: Twenty-five people are going to the movies. Four people fit in each car. How many cars are needed to get all 25 people to the theater at the same time?

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.

4.OA.4Using whole numbers in the range 1–100,

Gain familiarity with factors and multiples.

4.OA.4

a. Find all factor pairs for a given whole number.

b. Recognize that a given whole number is a multiple of each of its factors.

c. Determine whether a given whole number is a multiple of a given one-digit number.

d. Determine whether ta given whole number is prime or composite. Generate and analyze patterns.

**4.OA.5**Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

**Measurement and Data**

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

4.MD.3Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems. For example, find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length, by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

4.MD.3

### Enduring Understandings:

- Place value understanding a helps me solve multiplication and division problems with multi-digit numbers.
- Understanding the properties of numbers helps me find factors, multiples, products and quotients.
- Flexible methods of computation involve grouping numbers in strategic ways.
- When solving word problems, I must understand what needs to be done, different strategies to solve the problem, and the reasonableness of the solution.

### Essential Questions:

- How does place value understanding help me solve multiplication and division problems?
- How are the four operations related to one another?
- What types of problems can be solved using multiplication and division?
- What must I need to know in order to solve word problems?
- How can understanding patterns help me solve problems?
- What is the difference between perimeter and area?

## Unit 4 Angle Measure and Plane Figures

**Description:** In unit 4, students learn angles are composed of two rays. They learn to measure angles in degrees using a circular protractor and to sketch angles of a certain measure. Students learn three types of angles, right, acute and obtuse. They understand the sum of angle measurements around a point is 360 degrees and the sum of angle measurements on a line is 180 degrees. They use this knowledge to find unknown angles. Students will solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems.

Students build, draw and analyze two dimensional shapes in geometry. They draw and identify points, lines, line segments, rays, angles, and perpendicular and parallel lines. They use their knowledge of perpendicular and parallel lines and angle type to classify two-dimensional figures. Students identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data
Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.
4.MD.5** Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed whenever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

a. An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle.

b. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.

c. An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.

**4.MD.6**Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor. Sketch angles of specified measure.

**4.MD.7**Recognize angle measure as additive. When an angle is decomposed into non-overlapping parts, the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems, e.g., by using an equation with a letter for the unknown angle measure.

**Related area to operations of multiplication and addition**

4.MD.8Recognize area as additive. Find areas of rectilinear figures by decomposing them into non-overlapping rectangles and adding the areas of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real-world problems. Geometry Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

4.MD.8

**4.G.1**Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

**4.G.2**Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines, or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. Recognize right triangles as a category, and identify right triangles.

**4.G.3**Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts. Identify line-symmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Geometric figures can be classified based on their properties.
- Perpendicular, parallel sides, particular angle measures, and symmetry can be used to classify geometric figures.
- Two-dimensional figures may have lines of symmetry.

### Essential Questions:

- How do we use geometry to help us make sense of the world?
- What is unique about each geometric shape?
- How do we talk about and classify different shapes?
- What properties do geometric objects have in common?
- How do I measure geometric shapes?

## Unit 5 Fraction, Equivalence, Ordering, and Operations

**Description:** In Unit 5, fourth-grade students understand, recognize and generate equivalent fractions. Students compare fractions with different numerators and denominators. They create line plots and solve simple word problems involving the fractions found on the line plot. They add and subtract fractions with like denominators, for example, 3 fifths + 1 fifth = 4 fifths. Students begin with models such as the area model, manipulatives, and number lines, then progress to an equation. During this unit, students learn to multiply a fraction by a whole number. They also use models and equations to solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators and multiplication of a fraction by a whole number.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations-Fractions
Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.
4.NF.**1 Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. (Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

**4.NF.2**Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

**Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.**

**4.NF.3**Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. (Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

a. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. Example: 3/4 = 1/4 + 1/4 + 1/4.

b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. Examples: 3/8 = 1/8 + 1/8 + 1/8; 3/8 = 1/8 + 2/8; 2 1/8 = 1 + 1 + 1/8 = 8/8 + 8/8 + 1/8.

c. Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.

d. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

**4.NF.4**Multiply a fraction by a whole number. (Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

a. Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).

b. Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)

c. Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, if each person at a party will eat 3/8 of a pound of roast beef, and there will be 5 people at the party, how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

**Number and Operations in Based Ten**

B. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

4.NBT.6Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

B. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

4.NBT.6

**Measurement and Data**

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

4.MD.2Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving whole numbers and/or simple fractions (addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators and multiplying a fraction times a fraction or a whole number), and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. *Note: Students in grade 4 will be assessed on multiplying a fraction and a whole number as indicated in the NF domain. Some students may be able to multiply a fraction by a fraction as a result of generating equivalent fractions; however, mastery of multiplying two fractions occurs in Grade 5.

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

4.MD.2

Represent and interpret data

**4.MD.4**Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots. For example, from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. Operations and Algebraic Thinking

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems

**4.OA.2**Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparisons, by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.

Generate and analyze patterns.

**4.OA.5**Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1, generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Fractions can be composed and decomposed from unit fractions.
- Fractions can be represented visually and in written form.
- Fractions of the same whole can be compared.
- Fractional numbers and mixed numbers can be added, subtracted, and multiplied.

### Essential Questions:

- How can common numerators or denominators be created?
- How can equivalent fractions be identified?
- How can fractions with different numerators and different denominators be compared?
- How can fractions and mixed numbers be used interchangeably?
- How do we apply our understanding of fractions in everyday life?
- How can you use fractions to solve addition, subtraction, and multiplication problems?
- How can I model the multiplication of a whole number by a fraction?

Unit 6 Decimal Fractions

**Description: **In unit 6, students find equivalent fractions to change fractions with a denominator of 10 to a denominator of 100. They recognize that decimal place value units are special fraction units: 0.7, 7 tenths, and 7/10 are different ways to represent the same number. Students understand decimal places on the place value chart. They use their understanding to read and write decimal numbers to hundredths.

Students add and subtract tenths plus hundredths using models and visual representations. They add and subtract fractions with unlike units, for example, 3 tenths + 4 hundredths = 30 hundredths + 4 hundredths. They compare decimals using the symbols >, < and =. Students apply their understanding of decimal fractions to solve measurement word problems.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations-Fractions
Understand decimal notations for fractions, and compare decimal fractions.
4.NF.C.5** Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100, and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. For example, express 3/10 as 30/100, and add 3/10 + 4/100 = 34/100.

**4.NF.C.6**Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. For example, rewrite 0.62 as 62/100; describe a length as 0.62 meters; locate 0.62 on a number line diagram; represent 62/100 of a dollar as $0.62.

**4.NF.C.7**Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.

Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

**4.NF.1**Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n x a)/(n x b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. (Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

**4.NF.3c**Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction. (Denominators are limited to 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

**Measurement and Data**

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit

**4.MD.A.1** Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including ft, in, km, m, cm; kg, g; lb., oz.; l, ml; hr., min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. (Conversions are limited to one-step conversions.) Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft. is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express length of a 4 ft. snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ….

**4.MD.2** Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving whole numbers and/or simple fractions (addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators and multiplying a fraction times a fraction or a whole number), and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Fractions can be expressed as decimals, and decimals can be expressed as fractions.
- Decimals can be represented visually and in written form.
- Decimals are a part of the base ten system.
- Comparisons of two decimals are only valid when the two decimals refer to the same whole

### Essential Questions:

- What are the characteristics of a decimal fraction?
- How can I model decimals fractions using the base-ten and place value system?
- What patterns occur on a number line made up of decimal fractions?
- When we compare two decimals, how do we know which has a greater value?
- What is the relationship between fractions with denominators of 10 and denominators of 100?
- How can I represent a fraction with a denominator of 10 on a hundreds grid?

## Unit 7 Exploring Measurement with Multiplication

**Description:** Unit 7 focuses on multiplication and measurement as students solve multi-step word problems involving metric and customary measures. Students focus their learning on understanding the relationship between units within one system of measurement. Emphasis is placed on solving word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money. Students will apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Measurement and Data: Supporting Cluster
Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.
4.MD.A.1** Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including ft, in, km, m, cm; kg, g; lb., oz.; l, ml; hr., min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. (Conversions are limited to one-step conversions.) Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft. is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express length of a 4 ft. snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), ….

**4.MD.A.2**Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving whole numbers and/or simple fractions (addition and subtraction of fractions with like denominators and multiplying a fraction times a fraction or a whole number), and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

**Number and Operations in Base Ten**

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

**4.NBT.B.5**Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**4.NBT.B.6**Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

4.OA.1Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison and represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 x 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7, and 7 times as many as

Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems.

4.OA.1

**4.OA.2**Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison, e.g., by using drawings and/or equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem, distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison (Example: 6 times as many vs. 6 more than)

**4.OA.3**Solve multi-step word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. Example: Twenty-five people are going to the movies. Four people fit in each car. How many cars are needed to get all 25 people to the theater at the same time?

### Enduring Understandings:

- Measurement describes the attribute of objects and events.
- One unit of measurement can be compared to another within a single system of measurement.
- Measurement can be used to solve problems.
- There can be different strategies to solve a problem, but some are more effective and efficient than others are.
- A problem solver understands what has been done, knows why the process was appropriate, and can support it with reasons and evidence.

### Essential Questions:

- Why do we measure?
- Why do we need standardized units of measurement?
- When do we need to convert measurements?
- How can measurement be used to solve problems?
- How do I decide what strategy will work best in a given problem situation?
- How do I know where to begin when solving a problem?
- What is the difference between perimeter and area?

## Grade 5

Unit 1 Place Value and Decimal Fractions

**Description: **Students recognize patterns in the base ten system as they work with multi-digit whole numbers and decimals to the thousandths place. They understand that in multi-digit numbers, a digit in one place represents 10 times what it represents in the place to its right and 110 of what it represents in the place to its left. They use whole number exponents to represent powers of 10.

Students will read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths. Students compare two decimals to the thousandths place using >, =, and <. They use place value understanding to round decimals to any place and apply this understanding to solve problems with metric conversions.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations in Base Ten
Understand the place value system.
5.NBT.A.1** Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

**5.NBT.A.2**Explain and apply patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10. Explain and apply patterns in the values of the digits in the product or quotient, when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote powers of 10. For example, 100 = 1, 101 = 10 … and 2.1 x 102 = 210.

**5.NBT.A.3**Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.

a. Read and write decimals to thousandths using base‐ten numerals, number names, and expanded form, e.g., 347.392 = 3 x 100 + 4 x 10 + 7 x 1 + 3 x (1/10) + 9 x (1/100) + 2 x (1/1000).

b. Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

**5.NBT.A.4**Use place value understanding to round decimals to any place.

Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.

**5.NBT.B7**Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; justify the reasoning used with a written explanation.

**Measurement and Data
Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.
5.MD.A.1 **Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system, and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems. (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m; 9 ft. to 108 in). (Note: Unit 1 addresses the metric system component of this standard.)

### Enduring Understandings:

- It is important to understand that a digit represents 10 times the value of what it represents in the place to its right, and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.
- Understanding place value can help me solve problems with metric conversion.
- Understanding place value helps me read, write, compare and round decimals and perform mathematical operations.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the relationship between the base ten number system and place value?
- How does the value of a digit change depending on where it is located in a number?
- How can I use place value to solve problems involving metric conversion?
- How can I use exponents or unit fractions to represent numbers in expanded form?

## Unit 2 Multi-Digit Whole Number and Decimal Fraction Operations

**Description: **Students will use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit operations with whole numbers and decimals. They multiply multi-digit numbers, and understand how to multiply using the distributive property. Students use strategies, illustrations, and explanations including models to divide by two-digit divisors. Students apply their knowledge of place value, decimals, multiplication and division to metric conversions and to solve multi-step problems through modeling and writing simple equations.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operation in Base Ten
Understand the place value system.
5.NBT.A.1** Recognize that in a multi-digit number, a digit in one place represents 10 times as much as it represents in the place to its right and 1/10 of what it represents in the place to its left.

**5.NBT.A.2**Explain patterns in the number of zeros of the product when multiplying a number by powers of 10, and explain patterns in the placement of the decimal point when a decimal is multiplied or divided by a power of 10. Use whole-number exponents to denote power of 10.

Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths.

**5.NBT.B.5**Fluently multiply multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.

**5.NBT.B.6**Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, subtracting multiples of the divisor, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and/or explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, area models or other strategies based on place value.

**5.NBT.B7**Add, subtract, multiply, and divide decimals to hundredths, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; justify the reasoning used with a written explanation.

**Measurement and Data**

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

5.MD.A.1Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems. (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m; 9 ft to 108 in).

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

5.MD.A.1

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

Write and interpret numerical expressions

5.OA.A.1Use parentheses or brackets in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.

Write and interpret numerical expressions

5.OA.A.1

**5.OA.A.2**Write simple expressions that record calculations with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 + 7). Recognize that 3 × (18,932 + 9.21) is three times as large as 18,932 + 9.21, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.

### Enduring Understandings:

- The properties of multiplication and division help us solve computation problems.
- There is an order of operations that must be followed in all mathematical expressions.
- Selection of measurement tools and units depends on the real-world situation.
- Decimals allow us to express quantities with greater precision.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I write an expression that demonstrates a situation or context?
- Why express measurements in different ways?
- How does the position of a digit affect its value? Why is it important to follow an order of operations?
- How does multiplying or dividing a number by a power of ten affect the product or quotient?

## Unit 3 Addition and Subtraction of Fractions

**Description:** Students use models, manipulatives, or number lines to add fractions with unlike denominators. They find equivalent denominators to add fractions, and solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions with unlike denominators. They also use benchmarks, comparisons and mental math to justify their thinking and to determine whether their answer is reasonable.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operation in Base Ten
Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.
5.NF.A.1** Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (in general, a/b + c/d = (ab + bc)/bd.)

**5.NF.A.2**Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions.

a. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

b. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and justify the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 < 1/2.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Models can be used to compute fractions with like and unlike denominators.
- Equivalent fractions represent the same amount of area in a rectangle.
- Equivalent fractions represent the same point on the number line.
- Equivalent fractions can be used as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.

### Essential Questions:

- When would I need to use benchmark fractions?
- How can models (line plots, etc.) be used to compute fractions with like and unlike denominators?
- How can I tell if a fraction is greater than, less than, or equal to one whole?
- How can fractions with different denominators be added together? Subtracted?
- What strategies can be used to determine if answers are reasonable?

## Unit 4 Multiplication and Division of Fractions and Decimal Fractions

**Description:** In Unit 4, students use models and equations to multiply a fraction by a whole number, a whole number times a fraction, or a fraction by a fraction. They solve real world and mathematical problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers. They divide whole numbers by fractions and fractions by whole numbers. Students apply their knowledge of order of operations and writing expressions as they solve equations involving fraction operations. Students learn to express the remainder of a division problem as a fraction as they solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations
Fractions Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.
5.NF.3 **Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50‐pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie?

**5.NF.4**Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.

a. Interpret the product of (m/n) × q as parts of a partition of q into n equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations m × q ÷ n. For example, use a visual fraction model to show understanding, and create a story context for (m/n) × q.

b. Construct a model to develop understanding of the concept of multiplying two fractions and create a story context for the equation. [in general, (m/n) x (c/d) = (mc)/(n/d).]

c. Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

d. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas. 5.NF.5 Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by:

a. Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication.

b. Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case).

c. Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number. Relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n×a)/(n×b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by 1.

**5.NF.6**Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

**5.NF.7**Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions. (Students able to multiple fractions in general can develop strategies to divide fractions in general, by reasoning about the relationship between multiplication and division. But division of a fraction by a fraction is not a requirement at this grade level.)

a. Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) ÷ 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) ÷ 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) × 4 = 1/3.

b. Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 ÷ (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 ÷ (1/5) = 20 because 20 × (1/5) = 4.

c. Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non‐zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins?

**Measurement and Data**

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

5.MD.1Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems. (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m; 9 ft to 108 in).

Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system.

5.MD.1

**5.MD.2**Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally.

**Operations and Algebraic**

Thinking Write and interpret numerical expressions.

5.OA.1Use parentheses or brackets in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.

Thinking Write and interpret numerical expressions.

5.OA.1

**5.OA.2**Write simple expressions that record calculations with whole numbers, fractions, and decimals, and interpret numerical expressions without evaluating them. For example, express the calculation “add 8 and 7, then multiply by 2” as 2 × (8 +7). Recognize that 3 × (18,932 + 9.21) is three times as large as 18,932 + 9.21, without having to calculate the indicated sum or product.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Multiplication does not always make the product larger than the factors.
- Division does not always make the quotient smaller than the factors.
- A fraction is relative to the size of the whole or unit.
- Creating visual models aids in multiplying and dividing fractions.

### Essential Questions:

- How do operations with fractions compare/relate to operations with whole numbers and decimals?
- How is multiplying or dividing whole numbers similar to multiplying or dividing fractions?
- How can multiplying and dividing fractions be modeled?

## Unit 5 Addition and Multiplication with Volume and Area

**Description:** In this unit, students work with two-dimensional figures. They find the volume of rectangular prisms by counting unit cubes or by applying the formulas, V = l x w x h and V = b x h using cubic centimeters, cubic inches, cubic feet, and other units. They apply their understanding of concepts and formulas as they solve real word and mathematical problems involving estimating and measuring volume. Students classify two-dimensional figures according to their attributes. They also find the area of rectangles with fractional side lengths.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Number and Operations
Fractions Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions.**

**5.NF.4b**Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction.

b. Construct a model to develop understanding of the concept of multiplying two fractions and create a story context for the equation. [in general, (m/n) × (c/d) = (mc) / (nd).]

**5.NF.6**Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

**Measurement and Data**

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition

**5.MD.3**Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.

a. A cube with side length 1 unit, called a “unit cube,” is said to have “one cubic unit” of volume, and can be used to measure volume.

b. A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units.

**5.MD.4**Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.

**5.MD.5**Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume.

a. Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication.

b. Apply the formulas V = l × w × h and V = b × h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with whole-number edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems.

c. Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems.

**Geometry B. Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties.**

**5.G.3**Understand that attributes belonging to a category of two-dimensional figures also belong to all subcategories of that category. For example, all rectangles have four right angles and squares are rectangles, so all squares have four right angles.

**5.G.4**Classify quadrilaterals in a hierarchy based on properties.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Volume is represented in cubic units.
- A square unit could have fractional lengths. As long as the lengths of a square unit are the same, it is still considered a square unit.
- Plane shapes have many properties that make them different from one another. Polygons can be described and classified by their sides and angles.
- Any subcategory of a shape must also belong to the more general category of a shape.
- Two dimensional figures can be classified into categories based on their properties.

### Essential Questions:

- How do I use the language of math to make sense of/solve a problem?
- How can the volume of cubes and rectangular prisms be found?
- Why is volume represented with cubic units and area represented with square units?
- How do you find volume using fractional lengths?
- What is the best way to categorize a particular shape?
- What attributes do we use to classify shapes?

## Unit 6 Problem Solving with the Coordinate Plane

**Description:** In unit 6, students use the first quadrant of the coordinate plane to locate and plot points. They use the coordinate system to analyze relationships between points, ordered pairs, shapes and lines. Students apply their knowledge of the coordinate system to solve real world and mathematical problems.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Geometry
Classify two-dimensional figures into categories based on their properties.**

**5.G.A.1**Use a pair of perpendicular number lines, called axes, to define a coordinate system, with the intersection of the lines (the origin) arranged to coincide with the 0 on each line and a given point in the plane located by using an ordered pair of numbers, called its coordinates. Understand that the first number in the ordered pair indicates how far to travel from the origin in the direction of one axis, and the second number in the ordered pair indicates how far to travel in the direction of the second axis, with the convention that the names of the two axes and the coordinates correspond (e.g., x‐axis and x‐coordinate, y‐axis and y‐coordinate).

**5.G.A.2**Represent real world and mathematical problems by graphing points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane, and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.

**Operations and Algebraic Thinking**

Analyze patterns and relationships.

Analyze patterns and relationships.

**5.OA.B.3**Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 0, and given the rule “Add 6” and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.

### Enduring Understandings:

- A coordinate plane has two axes that cross at the origin.
- The coordinate plane can be used to model and compare numerical patterns.
- Real world situations may be represented on a graph.
- Patterns and relationships can be represented numerically, graphically, symbolically, and verbally.
- Graphical representations can be used to make predictions and interpretations about real world situations.

### Essential Questions:

- How can you use ordered pairs to locate points in a coordinate plane?
- How do coordinate grids help you organize information?
- How can numerical patterns be plotted on a graph?
- How can analyzing points plotted on a graph provide different types of information within a real world situation?

## Grade 6

## Unit 1 Ratios and Proportional Relationships

**Description:** During this unit, students examine the concept of ratio and rate. They use ratio language and ratio notation to describe the relationship between two quantities. Students use tables to find equivalent ratios, plot pairs of values on the coordinate plane and compare ratios. Students use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world problems including converting measurement units and finding percent of a quantity.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Ratios and Proportional Relationships
6.RP.A.1** Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.”

**6.RP.A.2**Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b ≠ 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.”

**6.RP.A.3**Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real‐world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations.

a. Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole‐number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.

b. Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?

c. Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.

d. Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Ratio and rate language is used to describe a relationship between two quantities (including unit rates.)
- Ratio and rate reasoning can be applied to many different types of mathematical and real-life problems

### Essential Questions:

- How can you use mathematics to describe, change and model real-world situations?
- When is it useful to be able to relate one quantity to another?
- How are ratios and rates similar and different?
- How do you use unit rates in the real world?

## Unit 2 The Number System

**Description:** In Unit 2, students add, subtract, multiply, and divide whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100, and understand the greatest common factor of two prime numbers will be 1. Students use the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to twelve.

Students study negative numbers, their relationship to positive numbers, and the meaning and uses of absolute value. They learn that all numbers have an opposite. Students use the number line to order rational numbers and understand the absolute value of a number. They work with the four quadrants of the coordinate system as they solve real-world and mathematical problems.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**The Number System
Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions.
6.NS.A.1** Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) ÷ (c/d) = ad/bc). How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb. of chocolate equally? How many 3/4- cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi?

**Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.**

**6.NS.2**Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm.

**6.NS.B.3**Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.

**6.NS.B.4**Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1–100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express 36 + 8 as 4 (9 + 2).

**Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.**

6.NS.C.5Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.

6.NS.C.5

**6.NS.C.6**Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.

a. Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; Recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., -(-3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.

b. Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes.

c. Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.

**6.NS.C.7**Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.

a. Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret –3 > –7 as a statement that –3 is located to the right of –7 on a number line oriented from left to right.

b. Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts. For example, write −3∘𝐶 > −7∘𝐶 to express the fact that −3∘𝐶 is warmer than −7∘𝐶.

c. Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation. For example, for an account balance of –30 dollars, write |–30| = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars.

d. Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than –30 d dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars..

### Enduring Understandings:

- The relationship between multiplication and division can be used to explain why the procedure for dividing fractions makes sense.
- The number line can be extended to the left and right of the point, zero.
- A number line can be either horizontal or vertical.
- Least common multiple and greatest common factor are helpful when solving real-world problems.
- A quantity can be represented numerically in various ways.
- Coordinate geometry can be used to represent and verify geometric/ algebraic relationships.

### Essential Questions:

- When I divide one number by another number, do I always get a quotient smaller than my original number?
- How are negative numbers represented on a number line?
- How are positive and negative numbers related?
- How can I compare rational numbers on a number line?
- How do you find value of an integer on the number line?
- How does absolute value relate to distance on a number line?
- How are both a horizontal and vertical number line used to make a coordinate plane?
- How can you plot points on a coordinate plane?

## Unit 3 Expressions and Equations

**Description: **In Unit 3, students understand variables in mathematical expressions, and how they correspond to given situations. They write and solve expressions, equations, and inequalities. They evaluate expressions and use expressions and formulas to solve real-world problems. Students generate equivalent expressions and solve simple one-step equations or inequalities. Students use values of variables to solve equations and construct and analyze tables and use equations to describe relationships between quantities.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Expressions and Equations
Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.**

**6.EE.A.1**Write and evaluate numeric expressions involving whole-number exponents.

**6.EE.A.2**Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

a. Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract 𝑦 from 5” as 5 − 𝑦.

b. Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2(8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms.

c. Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas 𝑉=𝑠3 and 𝐴𝐴=6𝑠2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length S=1/2.

**6.EE.A.3**Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3(2+𝑥) to produce the equivalent expression 6+3𝑥; apply the distributive property to the expression 24𝑥+18𝑦 to produce the equivalent expression 6(4𝑥+3𝑦); apply properties of operations to 𝑦+𝑦+𝑦 to produce the equivalent expression 3𝑦.

**6.EE.A.4**Identify when two expressions are equivalent (when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions 𝑦+𝑦+𝑦 and 3𝑦 are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number 𝑦 stands for.

**Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities.**

**6.EE.B.5**Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question; which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true.

**6.EE.B.6**Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.

**6.EE.B.7**Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations and inequalities in the form 𝑥+𝑝=𝑞 and px=𝑞 for cases in which 𝑝, 𝑞 and 𝑥 are all nonnegative rational numbers. Inequalities will include <, >, ≤, and ≥.

**6.EE.B.8**Write an inequality of the form 𝑥>𝑐 or 𝑥<𝑐 to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form 𝑥>𝑐 or 𝑥<𝑐 have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.

**Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables.**

**6.EE.C.9**Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation 𝑑=65𝑡 to represent the relationship between distance and time.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Variables can be used as unique unknown values or as quantities that vary.
- Exponential notation is a way to express repeated products of the same number.
- Expressions can be written with variables to represent real-world problems.
- Properties of operations can be used to generate, simplify and evaluate equivalent expressions.
- Two equivalent expressions form an equation.

### Essential Questions:

- Variables can be used as unique unknown values or as quantities that vary.
- Exponential notation is a way to express repeated products of the same number.
- Expressions can be written with variables to represent real-world problems.
- Properties of operations can be used to generate, simplify and evaluate equivalent expressions.
- Two equivalent expressions form an equation.

## Unit 4 Geometry

**Description:** In this unit, students solve for unknowns in area, surface area, and volume problems. They find the area of triangles and two-dimensional figures and use formulas to find the volume of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths. They use coordinates as they draw lines and polygons in the coordinate plane, and find the distance between points as they solve real-world problems. Students represent figures using nets.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Geometry
Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area and volume.
6.G.1** Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

**6.G.2**Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l ∙w∙ h and V = b∙ h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

**6.G.3**Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

**6.G.4**Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Tools provide ways of thinking about geometric objects and processes.
- Geometry offers ways to visualize, to interpret, and to reflect on our physical environment.
- A net is a plane figure that can be folded to make a solid figure.
- Solid figures can be identified and classified by the number of faces, edges, and vertices.

### Essential Questions:

- What is a real world application of surface area?
- How is a net utilized to represent a 3D figure?
- How is volume affected by a change in one dimension?
- What are the similarities and differences between area and surface area?
- What is the relationship between the areas of rectangles and triangles?
- How is finding the volume of a rectangular prism similar to finding the volume of a pyramid?
- How can you estimate the volume or surface area of a prism or a pyramid?

## Unit 5 Statistics and Probability

**Description:** In Unit 5, Students recognize statistical questions. They understand statistical variability and apply that understanding as they summarize, describe, and display distributions. They use various methods to represent and analyze data. Students also examine relationships among multiple representations of the same data set.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Statistics and Probability
Develop understanding of statistical variability**

**6.SP.1**Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages.

**6.SP.2**Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.

**6.SP.3**Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.

**Summarize and describe distributions**

**6.SP.4**Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.

**6.SP.5**Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

a. Reporting the number of observations.

b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement.

c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Data can be collected, organized, sorted, represented, and analyzed in a variety of ways.
- The results of a statistical investigation can be used to support or refute an argument.
- A statistical question should anticipate variability or more than one answer.

### Essential Questions:

- How do you ask a question to collect statistical data?
- What is the best way to summarize data collected from a study?
- How can understanding and use of measures of central tendency be useful for interpreting and drawing conclusions about data?
- What does variability mean?
- What is the difference between measures of center and measures of variation?

## Grade 7

## Unit 1 The Number System

**Description: **Students will solve real-world problems using the four operations with integers. An understanding of rational numbers will be extended to describe them as terminating and repeating decimals. Additionally, students will solve real-world problems that include signed whole numbers, as well as signed rational numbers.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**The Number System
A. Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.
7.NS.A.1** Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.

a. Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged.

b. Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.

c. Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p-q=p+(-q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real‐world contexts.

d. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers.

**7.NS.A.2**Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.

a. Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (–1)( –1)=1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.

b. Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non‐zero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then –(p/q)=(-p)/q=q/(-p) . Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.

c. Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers.

d. Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.

**7.NS.A.3**Solve real‐world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.

**Expressions and Equations**

B. Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

7.EE.B.3Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation.

B. Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

7.EE.B.3

Enduring Understandings:

- Rational numbers use the same properties as whole numbers.
- Positive and negative rational numbers can be used to solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems.

### Essential Questions:

- How do perform operations with rational numbers including positive and negative numbers?
- How is computation with rational numbers similar to and different from whole number computation?
- How are rational numbers used and applied in real-life and mathematical situations?

## Unit 2 Ratios and Proportional Relationships

**Description**: Students will add to their understanding of ratios by comparing unit rates and using proportions and complex fractions to solve problems. Proportions will also be used to solve real-world problems involving discount, tax, sales, percent increase/decrease, and markups.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

MP.8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Ratios and Proportional Relationships
A. Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.
7.RP.A.1** Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction ½ / ¼ miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour.

**7.RP.A.2**Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.

b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.

c. Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost, t, is proportional to the number, n, of items purchased at a constant price, p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t=pn.

d. Explain what a point (x,y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0,0) and (1,r), where r is the unit rate.

**7.RP.A.3**Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems of simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, and percent error.

### Enduring Understandings:

- A ratio is a multiplicative comparison of two quantities.
- Ratios can often be meaningfully reinterpreted as fractions.
- A proportion is a relationship of equality between two ratios. In a proportion, the ratio of two quantities remains constant as the corresponding values of the quantities change.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the difference between a unit rate and a ratio?
- How is unit rate related to rate of change?
- Why are multiplicative relationships proportional?
- What characteristics define the graphs of all proportional relationships?

## Unit 3 Expressions and Equations

**Description:** Students will find and write equivalent algebraic expressions. Students will solve equations and inequalities, including those with rational coefficients, to model real-world situations.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Expressions and Equations
A. Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions
7.EE.A.1 **Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients to include multiple grouping symbols (e.g., parentheses, brackets, and braces).

**7.EE.A.2**Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.”

B. Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.

**7.EE.B.3**Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation.

**7.EE.B.4**Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

a. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px+q=r and p(x+q)=r where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?

b. Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px+q>r or px+q<r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example: As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Variables can be used to represent numbers in any type of mathematical problem.
- Expressions can be manipulated to suit a particular purpose to solve problems efficiently.
- Mathematical expressions, equations, inequalities, and graphs are used to represent and solve real-world and mathematical problems.

### Essential Questions:

- Variables can be used as unique unknown values or as quantities that vary.
- Exponential notation is a way to express repeated products of the same number.
- Expressions can be written with variables to represent real-world problems.
- Properties of operations can be used to generate, simplify and evaluate equivalent expressions.
- Two equivalent expressions form an equation.

## Unit 4 Geometry

**Description:** Building upon geometry concepts from prior grade-levels, students will solve real-world problems involving triangles, angles, scale drawings, area of composed figures, circles, volume, surface area, and plane sections of solid figures. Additionally, students will explore the conditions for drawing triangles.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Geometry
A. Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationship between them.
7.G.A.1** Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale

**7.G.A.2**Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, or with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. (Focus is on triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine one and only one triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.)

**7.G.A.3**Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids.

B. Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume.

**7.G.B.4**Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.

**7.G.B.5**Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.

**7.G.B.6**Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. (Pyramids limited to surface area only.)

### Enduring Understandings:

- Geometry and spatial sense offer ways to interpret and reflect on our physical environment.
- Writing and solving real-life and mathematical problems involving simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure helps students as they engage in upper level geometry concepts.
- Mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes and right prisms can be solved by breaking the figure into its various parts.
- Triangles have limits to the length of the sides as well as sum of interior angles.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the total number of degrees in supplementary and complementary angles?
- What is the relationship between vertical and adjacent angles?
- How do geometric models describe spatial relationships?
- How are geometric shapes and objects classified?
- How is the third side of a triangle determined?
- What two-dimensional figures result from slicing prisms, pyramids, cubes, cylinders, and cones?

## Unit 5 Statistics and Probability

**Description:** Students will explore random samples and make statistical inferences. To compare data, students will use mean, mean absolute deviation, measures of center and variability. Additionally, students will explore experimental probability.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

MP.8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Statistics and Probability
A. Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.
7.SP.A.1 **Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences (statistical population: a set of people, things, observations, or concepts that share a property or set of properties).

**7.SP.A.2**Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.

**B. Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations**

7.SP.B.3Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities using quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

7.SP.B.3

**7.SP.B.4**Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.

**C. Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models.**

7.SP.C.5Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.

7.SP.C.5

**7.SP.C.6**Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.

**7.SP.C.7**Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.

a. Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.

b. Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?

**7.SP.C.8**Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. (Include: fundamental counting principle, combinations, and permutations to find possible outcomes)

a. Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

b. Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., "rolling double sixes"), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

c. Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?

### Enduring Understandings:

- The way that data is collected, organized and displayed influences interpretation.
- Measures of center and measures of variability can be compared and used to make inferences for two populations.
- The probability of a chance event is a rational number between 0 and 1.
- The probability of a compound event can sometimes be found using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulations.
- The probability of a compound event is similar to the probability of a simple event in that both are ratios comparing the number of favorable outcomes within a sample space to the entire sample space.

### Essential Questions:

- How can you predict the outcome of future events?
- Why is data collected and analyzed?
- How do you know which type of graph to use when displaying data?
- How do people use data to influence others?
- How can predictions be made based on data?
- How can the probability of an event be determined?
- What is the reliability of the determination of the probability of an event?

## Grade 8

Unit 1 Exponents and the Number System

**Description: **Students will write numbers in both scientific notation and standard form. Students will also use properties of exponents and scientific notation to evaluate expressions and solve real-world problems. Square roots and cube roots will be used to solve problems. Additionally, students will explore the difference between rational and irrational numbers.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

MP.8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Expressions and Equations
A. Work with radicals and integer exponents.
8.EE.A.1** Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3-5 = 3-3 = 1/33 = 1/27.

**8.EE.A.2**Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.

- Note: LSSM do not include simplifying radicals as an 8th grade standard. Ex: students are not assessed on √12=2√3

**8.EE.A.3**Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

**8.EE.A.4**Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notations are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

**The Number System**

A. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

8.NS.A.1Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually. Convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number by analyzing repeating patterns.

A. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

8.NS.A.1

**8.NS.A.2**Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π^2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2, show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations to the hundredths place.

### Enduring Understandings:

- The properties of integer exponents are used to simplify expressions containing integer exponents.
- Numbers can be expressed in scientific notation to compare very large and very small quantities and to perform computations with those numbers.
- Expressions are powerful tools for exploring, reasoning about, and representing situations.
- The number system consists of numbers that are rational and irrational.
- Irrational numbers can be represented on a real number line.
- Every number has a decimal expansion.

Essential Questions:

- Why is it helpful to write numbers in different ways?
- How can you evaluate positive exponents?
- How can you evaluate negative exponents?
- How can you develop and use the properties of integer exponents?
- How can you use scientific notation to express very large and very small quantities?
- Why are quantities represented in multiple ways?
- What is the difference between rational and irrational numbers?
- How do you find the decimal expansion of a number?

## Unit 2 Functions

**Description: **Students will explore the concept of function using input/output tables and maps. Functions will be compared using the concept of unit rate developed in 6th grade. Students will graph and analyze linear functions; the concept of slope will be developed in the next unit.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

MP.8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Functions
A. Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
8.F.A.1** Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in this grade level.)

**8.F.A.2**Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

**8.F.A.3**Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; categorize functions as linear or nonlinear when given equations, graphs, or tables. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1),(2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.B. Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

**8.F.B.4**Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x,y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

**8.F.B.5**Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Our world is filled with functions. By learning how to represent, construct, and analyze functions we gain a better understanding of how our world works.
- Verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs can be used to represent linear and nonlinear functions.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the difference between a relation and a function?
- How can you determine if a relation is a function?
- How does a change in the independent variable affect the dependent variable?
- What types of relationships can be represented as functions?
- How can you use words, tables, equations, and graphs to represent linear and nonlinear functions?

## Unit 3 Expressions and Equations

**Description:** Students will graph and compare proportional relationships. The concept of slope will be explored and used to write the equation of a line in slope-intercept form. Students will solve linear equations and determine the number of solutions. Solving linear equations will include variables on both sides of the equal sign. Students will solve simple systems of equations both graphically and algebraically and determine the number of solutions.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

MP.8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Expressions and Equations
B. Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
8.EE.B.5** Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

**8.EE.B.6**Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

**C. Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.**

8.EE.C.7Solve linear equations in one variable.

8.EE.C.7

a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

**8.EE.C.8**Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x+2y=5 and 3x+2y=6 have no solution because 3x+2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Linear equations in one variable can have one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions.
- An equation can be written for two quantities that vary proportionally.
- The unit rate for a data set that represents a proportional relationship can be interpreted as slope when the data is graphed on a coordinate plane.
- The slope m is the same for any two distinct points on a non-vertical line graphed on the coordinate plane.
- Graphs of linear equations that intersect the y-axis at any point other than the origin (0,0) do not represent proportional relationships.
- The points (x,y) on a non-vertical line are the solutions of the equation y = mx + b.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I communicate mathematical information and ideas more effectively?
- How do we understand and represent linear relationships and various nonlinear relationships?
- What is the meaning of slope?
- How can we transfer data and information between multiple representations? (e.g. graphs, tables, equations, descriptions, etc.)
- What is the difference between a ratio and a unit rate?
- How can proportional relationships be used to represent authentic situations in life and solve actual problems?
- What does the point of intersection of two simultaneous equations represent?

## Unit 4 Geometry

**Description:** This unit will introduce new geometry concepts of transformations, congruence, similarity, parallel lines, angle relationships created from parallel lines cut by a transversal, and the Pythagorean Theorem. Students will add to their understanding of 3-D objects to include volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

MP.8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Geometry
A. Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
8.G.A.1** Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: (Rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8)

a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.

b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.

c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

**8.G.A.2**Explain that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. (Rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8)

**8.G.A.3**Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates. (Rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8)

**8.G.A.4**Explain that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. (Dilations only use the origin as the center of dilation, rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8)

**8.G.A.5**Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so.

**B. Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.**

8.G.B.6Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse using the area of squares.

8.G.B.6

**8.G.B.7**Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. (Some parts of tasks require students to use the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem.)

**8.G.B.8**Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system. B.

C. Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.

**8.G.C.9**Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Enduring Understandings:

- Congruent figures have the same size and shape.
- When parallel lines are cut by a transversal, corresponding angles, alternate interior angles, alternate exterior angles, and vertical angles are congruent.
- The Pythagorean Theorem can be used both algebraically and geometrically to solve problems involving right triangles
- There is a relationship between the Pythagorean Theorem and the distance formula and both can be used to find missing side lengths in a coordinate plane and real-world situation.
- Two shapes are similar if the lengths of all the corresponding sides are proportional and all the corresponding angles are congruent.
- Two similar figures are related by a scale factor, which is the ratio of the lengths of corresponding sides.

### Essential Questions:

- What are transformations and what effect do they have on a two-dimensional figure?
- How can you use coordinates to describe the result of a translation, reflection, or rotation?
- What properties of a two-dimensional figure are preserved under a translation, reflection, or rotation?
- Why does the Pythagorean Theorem apply only to right triangles?
- Where is the origin on a coordinate grid?
- What does the scale factor of a dilation convey?
- Can two figures be both congruent and similar?

## Unit 5 Statistics and Probability

**Description:** Students will use scatter plots and trend lines to make predictions about data. Linear models and frequency tables will be used to solve real-world problems.

Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

MP.8 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Statistics and Probability
A. Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
8.SP.A.1** Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

**8.SP.A.2**Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line

**8.SP.A.3**Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.

**8.SP.A.4**Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?

### Enduring Understandings:

- Reading, understanding, interpreting, and communicating data are critical in modeling.
- Graphs enhance the display and understanding of data.
- Patterns in data provide insights into potential relationships.
- Correlations in data do not guarantee a cause-effect relationship.
- Clusters of data and outliers affect the interpretation of the model.

### Essential Questions:

- Why is data collected and analyzed?
- How can we use modeling to form a prediction?
- What is the impact of outliers on the analysis of data?

## Accelerate to Algebra

## Unit 1 The Number System

**Description: **Students will solve real-world problems using the four operations with integers. An understanding of rational numbers will be extended to describe them as terminating and repeating decimals. Additionally, students will solve real-world problems that include signed whole numbers, as well as signed rational numbers.

Students will write numbers in both scientific notation and standard form. Students will also use properties of exponents and scientific notation to evaluate expressions and solve real-world problems. Square roots and cube roots will be used to solve problems. Additionally, students will explore the difference between rational and irrational numbers.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**The Number System**

**A. Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers.
7.NS.A.1** Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.

a. Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged.

b. Understand p + q as the number located a distance |q| from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.

c. Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p-q=p+(-q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real‐world contexts.

d. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers.

**7.NS.A.2**Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.

a. Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (–1)( –1)=1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.

b. Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non‐zero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then –(p/q)=(-p)/q=q/(-p) . Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.

c. Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers.

d. Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.

**7.NS.A.3**Solve real‐world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.

**Expressions and Equations**

A. Work with radicals and integer exponents.

A. Work with radicals and integer exponents.

**8.EE.A.1**Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3-5 = 3-3 = 1/33 = 1/27.

**8.EE.A.2**Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x^2 = p and x^3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that √2 is irrational.

**8.EE.A.3**Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.

**8.EE.A.4**Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notations are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology.

**The Number System**

A. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

8.NS.A.1Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually. Convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number by analyzing repeating patterns.

A. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

8.NS.A.1

**8.NS.A.2**Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π^2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2, show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations to the hundredths place.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Rational numbers use the same properties as whole numbers.
- Positive and negative rational numbers can be used to solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems.
- The properties of integer exponents are used to simplify expressions containing integer exponents.
- Numbers can be expressed in scientific notation to compare very large and very small quantities and to perform computations with those numbers.
- Expressions are powerful tools for exploring, reasoning about, and representing situations.
- The number system consists of numbers that are rational and irrational.
- Irrational numbers can be represented on a real number line.
- Every number has a decimal expansion.

### Essential Questions:

- How do perform operations with rational numbers including positive and negative numbers?
- How is computation with rational numbers similar to and different from whole number computation?
- How are rational numbers used and applied in real-life and mathematical situations?
- Why is it helpful to write numbers in different ways?
- How can you evaluate positive exponents?
- How can you evaluate negative exponents?
- How can you develop and use the properties of integer exponents?
- How can you use scientific notation to express very large and very small quantities?
- Why are quantities represented in multiple ways?
- What is the difference between rational and irrational numbers?
- How do you find the decimal expansion of a number?

Unit 2 Expression and Equations

**Description:** Students will find and write equivalent algebraic expressions. Students will solve equations and inequalities, including those with rational coefficients, to model real-world situations.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Expressions and Equations
A. Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.
7.EE.A.1** Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients to include multiple grouping symbols (e.g., parentheses, brackets, and braces).

**7.EE.A.2**Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.”

**B. Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations.**

7.EE.B.3Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50. If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation.

7.EE.B.3

**7.EE.B.4**Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

a. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px+q=r and p(x+q)=r where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?

b. Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px+q>r or px+q<r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example: As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions.

**C. Analyze and solve linear equations.**

8.EE.C.7Solve linear equations in one variable.

8.EE.C.7

a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).

b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Variables can be used to represent numbers in any type of mathematical problem.
- Expressions can be manipulated to suit a particular purpose to solve problems efficiently.
- Mathematical expressions, equations, inequalities, and graphs are used to represent and solve real-world and mathematical problems.

### Essential Questions:

- How can I apply the order of operations and the fundamentals of algebra to solve problems involving equations and inequalities?
- How can I justify that multiple representations in the context of a problem are equivalent expressions?
- How do I assess the reasonableness of my answer?

Unit 3 Ratios and Proportional Relationships

**Description:** Students will add to their understanding of ratios by comparing unit rates and using proportions and complex fractions to solve problems. Proportions will also be used to solve real-world problems involving discount, tax, sales, percent increase/decrease, markups, and scale drawings.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Ratios and Proportional Relationships
A. Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.
7.RP.A.1** Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction ½ / ¼ miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour.

**7.RP.A.2**Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.

b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.

c. Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost, t, is proportional to the number, n, of items purchased at a constant price, p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t=pn.

d. Explain what a point (x,y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0,0) and (1,r), where r is the unit rate.

**7.RP.A.3**Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems of simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, and percent error.

**Geometry**

A. Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationship between them.

7.G.A.1Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

A. Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationship between them.

7.G.A.1

### Enduring Understandings:

- A ratio is a multiplicative comparison of two quantities.
- Ratios can often be meaningfully reinterpreted as fractions.
- A proportion is a relationship of equality between two ratios. In a proportion, the ratio of two quantities remains constant as the corresponding values of the quantities change.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the difference between a unit rate and a ratio?
- How is unit rate related to rate of change?
- Why are multiplicative relationships proportional?
- What characteristics define the graphs of all proportional relationships?
- What two-dimensional figures result from slicing prisms, pyramids, cubes, cylinders, and cones?

Unit 4 Geometry

**Description:** Building upon geometry concepts from prior grade-levels, students will solve real-world problems involving triangles, angles, scale drawings, area of composed figures, circles, volume, surface area, and plane sections of solid figures. Additionally, students will explore the conditions for drawing triangles.

This unit will introduce new geometry concepts of transformations, congruence, similarity, parallel lines, angle relationships created from parallel lines cut by a transversal, and the Pythagorean Theorem. Students will add to their understanding of 3-D objects to include volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Geometry
7.G.A.2 **Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, or with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. (Focus is on triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine one and only one triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.)

**7.G.A.3**Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three-dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids.

**7.G.B.4**Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.

**7.G.B.5**Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.

**7.G.B.6**Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. (Pyramids limited to surface area only.)

**8.G.A.1**Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: (Rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8)

a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length.

b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure.

c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.8.G.A.2 Explain that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. (Rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8)

**8.G.A.3**Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates. (Rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8) 8.G.A.4 Explain that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. (Dilations only use the origin as the center of dilation, rotations are only about the origin and reflections are only over the y-axis and x-axis in Grade 8)

**8.G.A.5**Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so.

**8.G.B.6**Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse using the area of squares.

**8.G.B.7**Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. (Some parts of tasks require students to use the converse of the Pythagorean Theorem.)

**8.G.B.8**Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.

**8.G.C.9**Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems

### Enduring Understandings:

- Mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes and right prisms can be solved by breaking the figure into its various parts.
- Triangles have limits to the length of the sides as well as the sum of interior angles.
- Congruent figures have the same size and shape.
- When parallel lines are cut by a transversal, corresponding angles, alternate interior angles, alternate exterior angles, and vertical angles are congruent.
- The Pythagorean Theorem can be used both algebraically and geometrically to solve problems involving right triangles
- There is a relationship between the Pythagorean Theorem and the distance formula and both can be used to find missing side lengths in a coordinate plane and real-world situation.
- Two shapes are similar if the lengths of all the corresponding sides are proportional and all the corresponding angles are congruent.
- Two similar figures are related by a scale factor, which is the ratio of the lengths of corresponding sides.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the total number of degrees in supplementary and complementary angles?
- What is the relationship between vertical and adjacent angles?
- How do geometric models describe spatial relationships?
- How are geometric shapes and objects classified?
- How is the third side of a triangle determined?
- What two-dimensional figures result from slicing prisms, pyramids, cubes, cylinders, and cones?
- What are transformations and what effect do they have on a two-dimensional figure?
- How can you use coordinates to describe the result of a translation, reflection, or rotation?
- What properties of a two-dimensional figure are preserved under a translation, reflection, or rotation?
- Why does the Pythagorean Theorem apply only to right triangles?
- Where is the origin on a coordinate grid?
- What does the scale factor of a dilation convey?
- Can two figures be both congruent and similar?

## Unit 5 Functions and Linear Equations

**Description:** Students will explore the concept of function using input/output tables and maps. Functions will be compared using the concept of unit rate developed in 6th grade. Students will graph and analyze linear functions.

The concept of slope will be explored and used to write the equation of a line in slope-intercept form. Students will solve linear equations and determine the number of solutions. Solving linear equations will include variables on both sides of the equal sign. Students will solve simple systems of equations both graphically and algebraically and determine the number of solutions.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Functions
A. Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
8.F.A.1** Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in this grade level.)

**8.F.A.2**Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.

**8.F.A.3**Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; categorize functions as linear or nonlinear when given equations, graphs, or tables. For example, the function A = s^2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1),(2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.

B. Use functions to model relationships between quantities.

**8.F.B.4**Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x,y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

**8.F.B.5**Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

**EE – Expressions and Equations**

B. Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

8.EE.B.5Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.

B. Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.

8.EE.B.5

**8.EE.B.6**Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

**C. Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.**

8.EE.C.8Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations.

8.EE.C.8

a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.

b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x+2y=5 and 3x+2y=6 have no solution because 3x+2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.

c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Our world is filled with functions. By learning how to represent, construct, and analyze functions we gain a better understanding of how our world works.
- Verbal descriptions, tables, equations, and graphs can be used to represent linear and nonlinear functions.
- An equation can be written for two quantities that vary proportionally.
- The unit rate for a data set that represents a proportional relationship can be interpreted as slope when the data is graphed on a coordinate plane.
- The slope m is the same for any two distinct points on a non-vertical line graphed on the coordinate plane.
- Graphs of linear equations that intersect the y-axis at any point other than the origin (0,0) do not represent proportional relationships.
- The points (x,y) on a non-vertical line are the solutions of the equation y = mx + b.

Essential Questions:

- What is the difference between a relation and a function?
- How can you determine if a relation is a function?
- How does a change in the independent variable affect the dependent variable?
- What types of relationships can be represented as functions?
- How do we understand and represent linear relationships and various nonlinear relationships?
- What is the meaning of slope?
- How can we transfer data and information between multiple representations? (e.g. graphs, tables, equations, descriptions, etc.)
- What is the difference between a ratio and a unit rate?
- How can proportional relationships be used to represent authentic situations in life and solve actual problems?
- What does the point of intersection of two simultaneous equations represent?

## Unit 6 Statistics and Probability

**Description:** Students will explore random samples and make statistical inferences. To compare data, students will use mean, mean absolute deviation, measures of center and variability. Additionally, students will explore experimental probability.

Students will use scatter plots and trend lines to make predictions about data. Linear models and frequency tables will be used to solve real-world problems.

### Standards for Mathematical Practice

MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

MP.3 Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.

MP.4 Model with mathematics.

MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically.

MP.6 Attend to precision.

MP.7 Look for and make use of structure.

### Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

**Statistics and Probability
A. Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.
7.SP.A.1** Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences (statistical population: a set of people, things, observations, or concepts that share a property or set of properties).

**7.SP.A.2**Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be.

B. Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations

**7.SP.B.3**Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities using quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered.

**7.SP.B.4**Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book.

C. Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models

**7.SP.C.5**Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.

**7.SP.C.6**Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times.

**7.SP.C.7**Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.

a. Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.

b. Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies?

**7.SP.C.8**Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. (Include: fundamental counting principle, combinations, and permutations to find possible outcomes)

a. Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.

b. Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., "rolling double sixes"), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.

c. Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood?

**Statistics and Probability**

A. Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

8.SP.A.1Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

A. Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population.

8.SP.A.1

**8.SP.A.2**Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

**8.SP.A.3**Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.

**8.SP.A.4**Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores?

### Enduring Understandings:

- The way that data is collected, organized and displayed influences interpretation.
- Measures of center and measures of variability can be compared and used to make inferences for two populations.
- The probability of a chance event is a rational number between 0 and 1.
- The probability of a compound event can sometimes be found using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulations.
- The probability of a compound event is similar to the probability of a simple event in that both are ratios comparing the number of favorable outcomes within a sample space to the entire sample space.
- Graphs enhance the display and understanding of data.
- Patterns in data provide insights into potential relationships.
- Correlations in data do not guarantee a cause-effect relationship.
- Clusters of data and outliers affect the interpretation of the model.

### Essential Questions:

- How can you predict the outcome of future events?
- Why is data collected and analyzed?
- How do you know which type of graph to use when displaying data?
- How do people use data to influence others?
- How can predictions be made based on data?
- How can the probability of an event be determined?
- What is the reliability of the determination of the probability of an event?
- Why is data collected and analyzed?
- How can we use modeling to form a prediction?
- What is the impact of outliers on the analysis of data?

## Algebra I

## Algebra II

## Geometry

## English Language Arts

- Grade K
- Grade 1
- Grade 2
- Grade 3
- Grade 4
- Grade 5
- Grade 6
- Grade 7
- Grade 8
- English I
- English II
- English III
- English IV

## Grade K

## Skills Unit 1

**Unit Length:** 12 instructional days

**Description: **This unit lays the groundwork for reading and writing. Students build awareness of environmental noises, of words within sentences, and of sounds within words. They also learn several writing strokes used to create letters.

**ELA Standards:**

**RF.K.1.a:** Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.

**RF.K.2:** Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds.

**Big Ideas:**

- Environmental noises and words in sentences make different sounds.
- Speech is made up of words.
- Position words describe a relative location.
- Handwriting strokes are made by holding a writing utensil and moving it across paper.

Skills Unit 2

**Unit Length:** 12 instructional days

**Description:** Students learn how to blend syllables together to form multi-syllabic words. They also learn how to orally produce two- and three-sound words by blending sounds.

**ELA Standards:**

**RF.K.1.a: **Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page.

**RF.K.2.b:** Count, recognize, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.

**Big Ideas:**

- Words are made of sound parts (syllables, phonemes).
- Phonemes (sounds) are blended to form words.
- Position words describe a relative location.
- Handwriting strokes are made by holding a writing utensil and moving it across paper.

Skills Unit 3

**Unit Length:** 16 instructional days

**Description:** Students are introduced to eight sounds and they practice blending these sounds into words. They also learn how to form the letters that make these sounds.

**ELA Standards:**

**L.K.1.a:** Print many upper- and lowercase letters.

**L.K.2.c:** Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short vowel sounds.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students are introduced to high-frequency words in the Picture Reader.
- Sounds in words are represented with symbols.
- Sounds pictures can be blended to read words.
- Sound pictures are used to spell words.

## Skills Unit 4

**Unit Length:** 17 instructional days

**Description:** This unit introduces students to eight new sounds. Through oral language games, chaining exercise, and shared reading, students practice blending these sounds into words. Students also practice previously learned letter-sound correspondences.

**ELA Standards:**

**RF.K.2.d:** Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds in three-phoneme words.

**RF.K.3.a: **Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.

**L.K.1.a:** Print many upper- and lowercase letters.

**L.K.2.c:** Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short vowel sounds.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students are introduced to the decodable Big Book, Pet Fun.
- Print concepts and fluency are reinforced using the Big Book.
- Sounds/symbols can be blended to read words.
- Symbols are used to spell words.
- Words make up phrases and sentences.
- Words are read from left to right.
- Words in a book tell a story.

Skills Unit 5

**Unit Length:** 17 instructional days

**Description:** This unit introduces students to eight new sounds, including a spelling alternative for /k/. Through oral language games, chaining exercises, and shared reading, students practice blending these sounds into words. Students also practice previously learned letter-sound correspondences.

**ELA Standards:**

**RF.K.3.a: **Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.

**RF.K.3.b:** Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five major vowels.

**RF.K.3.c:** Read common high frequency words by sight.

**RF.K.3.d:** Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

**L.K.1.a:** Print many upper- and lowercase letters.

**L.K.2.d:** Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

**Big Ideas:**

- The decodable Big Book Ox and Man is used to reinforce print concepts, model fluency, and provides practice reading complete sentences.
- Words are spelled with sound pictures (letters).
- There are uppercase and lowercase sound pictures.
- Words make up phrases and sentences.
- Sentences begin with a capital letter (sound picture) and end with a period.

Skills Unit 6

**Unit Length:** 19 instructional days

**Description:** Students automatize the letter-sound correspondences and blending procedures they learned so far. They are introduced to consonant clusters, letter names, rhyming words, and reading text independently.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.K.1:** With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**RF.K.2.a:** Recognize and produce rhyming words.

**RF.K.2.c:** Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.

**RF.K.3.c:** Read common high-frequency words by sight.

**RF.K.4: **Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students use their own decodable Reader to practice reading previously learned sound
- spellings, punctuation, and to reinforce print concepts.
- Sound pictures are called letters, and each one has a name.
- Letters make up the alphabet and are arranged in alphabetical order
- Sentences begin with a capital letter (sound picture) and end with a period.

Skills Unit 7

**Unit Length:** 19 instructional days

**Description:** This unit introduced students to digraphs. Students develop automaticity in blending and segmenting these sounds through phonemic awareness activities, chaining exercises, practice activities, and partner and independent reading.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.K.1:** With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**RL.K.7: **With prompting and support, make connections between the illustrations in the story and the text.

**RF.K.2.b:** Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.

**RF.K.3.c: **Read common high-frequency words by sight.

**RF.K.4:** Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students use the decodable Reader Seth to practice fluency and print concepts.
- Digraphs are two letters that make a single sound.
- Consonant clusters are blended so two individual sounds are heard.

Skills Unit 8

**Unit Length:** 23 instructional days

**Description:** This unit introduces students to double-letter spellings for consonant sounds, as well as four high-frequency Tricky Words. Results from this unit’s student performance task assessment inform which students are ready for the next unit and those who need targeted support with previously taught skills.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.K.3:** With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

**RF.K.1.d:** Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

**RF.K.3.b:** Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five major vowels.

**RF.K.3.c:** Read common high-frequency words by sight.

**RF.K.4:** Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

**Big Ideas:**

- The decodable Reader, Sam, is about a boy and a series of events including fishing, swimming, and going on a class trip to the seaside.
- Double-letter spellings most frequently follow a short vowel sound.
- Sentences have different ending marks, depending on the type of sentence.
- Apostrophes show possession or are used in contractions.

Skills Unit 9

**Unit Length:** 17 instructional days

**Description:** In Unit 9, students practice writing uppercase letters and learn fifteen new Tricky Words. This unit also introduces activity pages with comprehension questions related to the Student Reader. Students will be assessed on uppercase letter identification and formation, punctuation and sentence reading.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.K.7:** With prompting and support, make connections between the illustrations in the story and the text.

**W.K.3:** Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

**L.K.1.a:** Print many upper- and lowercase letters.

**L.K.2.c:** Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds.

**RF.K.4: **Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

**Big Ideas:**

- The chapters in the decodable Reader focus on a brother and sister and their adventures.
- Letter names and the sounds they make
- Uppercase letter formation
- Sentences have different ending marks, depending on the type of sentence.
- Answering questions about the story through discussions and in writing

Skills Unit 10

**Unit Length: **19 instructional days

**Description: **This unit introduces students to five new vowel sounds and eleven additional Tricky Words.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.K.1:** With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**W.K.3:** Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

**RF.K.3.b:** Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings for the five major vowels.

**RF.K.3.c:** Read common high-frequency words by sight.

**RF.K.4:** Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

**Big Ideas:**

- The main character in the Reader is Scott, who lives on a farm. This Reader provides practice with words using long vowel sounds.
- Vowels make long and short sounds.
- Separated digraphs use the Magic ‘e’ to form words with long vowel sounds.
- Sound spellings are used to read and spell words in phrases and sentences.

## Knowledge Domain 1: Nursery Rhymes and Fables

**Unit Length:** 17 instructional days

**Description:** This unit is an introduction to nursery rhymes and fables, including Mother Goose poems and Aesop’s fables. By listening to nursery rhymes and repeating or reciting them, students learn vocabulary and build phonemic awareness. Well-known fables introduce students to new vocabulary and prompt discussion of character, virtues, and behavior.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.K.2: **With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

**RL.K.3:** With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

**RL.K.9:** With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

**RF.K.2.a:** Recognize and produce rhyming words.

**Big Ideas:**

- Nursery rhymes and fables have been favorites with children for generations.
- Traditional rhymes help students learn vocabulary and build phonemic awareness.
- Listening to and learning to recite nursery rhymes help students develop language awareness, leading to better readers and writers.

## Knowledge Domain 2: The Five Senses

**Unit Length: **13 instructional days

**Description:** Students explore how they learn about the world using their five senses. Students also hear inspirational stories about individuals who overcame significant challenges posed by disabilities related to sight and hearing.

**ELA Standards:**

**RI.K.2**: With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.K.3:** With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**W.K.2:** Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

**Big Ideas:**

- Everything we know about the world comes through our five senses.
- Each sense uses a unique body part to take in information.
- Conducting observations and using language to describe those observations are key skills in the scientific process.

## Knowledge Domain 3: Stories

**Unit Length: **15 instructional days

**Description:** Students are introduced to classic stories as well as trickster tales and fiction from other cultures. Students develop an awareness of language and recurring themes in children’s literature.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.K.2:** With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

**RL.K.3:** With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

**RL.K.9: **With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

**W.K.1:** Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book.

**W.K.3:** Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

**Big Ideas:**

- Memorable characters in classic stories and trickster tales have delighted children for
- generations.
- Students gain an appreciation for fiction from other cultures.
- Students acquire and understanding of the elements of story including characters, plot, and setting.
- Recurring themes appear in classic and popular children’s literature.

## Knowledge Domain 4: Plants

**Unit Length:** 19 instructional days

**Description:** Read-aloud texts introduce students to the parts of plants and how they grow. Students gain a basic knowledge of ecology and the interdependence of all living things.

**ELA Standards:**

**RI.K.3:** With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**RL.K.2: **With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

**W.K.2:** Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

**Big Ideas:**

- Plants make up one kingdom in the scientific system that classifies different living things.
- There are over 350,000 species of plants on earth.
- Plants need basic things to stay alive and grow.
- Plants have life cycles, like other living things.
- All living things are interconnected.

## Knowledge Domain 5: Farms

**Unit Length:** 20 instructional days

**Description:** Students learn about the importance of farms as a source of food and other products. They identify several farm animals and crops, and contrast how plants make their own food with how animals get their food by eating plants and other living things.

**ELA Standards:**

**RI.K.2:** With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RL.K.2:** With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

**W.K.2: **Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students draw on information gained in the Plants domain to understand what plants and animals need to grow.
- Farms are an important source of food and other products people use.
- The classic story “The Little Red Hen” describes the seasonal rhythm of planting, growing, and harvesting.

## Knowledge Domain 6: Native Americans

**Unit Length:** 14 instructional days

**Description:** Students are introduced to the broad concept that indigenous people lived on the continents of North and South America long before European explorers arrived. Students explore the distinctive cultures of three Native American groups, as well as how conditions in different geographical regions influence their ways of life.

**ELA Standards:**

**RI.K.9:** With prompting and support, identify similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic.

**W.K.2:** Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

**Big Ideas:**

- Indigenous people lived on the North and South American continents long before European explorers visited and settled this area.
- There were many different tribes and each had their own way of life.
- Geographical locations influenced lifestyles and individual cultures of different tribes.
- The three tribes are the focus of the unit are Lakota Sioux, Wampanoag, and Lenape.

## Knowledge Domain 7: Kings and Queens

**Unit Length:** 14 instructional days

**Description:** Students listen to read-aloud texts, both fiction and nonfiction, about kings, queens, and royal families. The selections build students’ understanding of responsibilities and customs associated with royalty throughout history.

**ELA Standards:
RL.K.2:** With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

**RL.K.3:**With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

**RL.K.7:**With prompting and support, make connections between the illustrations in the story and the text.

**RI.K.3:**With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**W.K.3:**Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

**Big Ideas:**

- Throughout history, royalty has played a major role in the governance of countries in the world.
- The responsibilities, lifestyles, and customs associated with royalty provide context for many classic and well-loved stories and rhymes.
- This unit provides background knowledge for later domains and builds knowledge for understanding different forms of government.

## Knowledge Domain 8: Seasons and Weather

**Unit Length:** 13 instructional days

**Description:** An introduction to weather and the seasons. Students learn that regions of Earth experience different characteristic weather patterns throughout the year.

**ELA Standards:
RI.K.2:** With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.K.3:**With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**W.K.2:**Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

**Big Ideas:**

- Different regions of the Earth experience different weather patterns throughout the year.
- Weather patterns in the year are called seasons: winter, spring, summer, and fall.
- Knowing about the weather is important to our daily lives and activities.

## Knowledge Domain 9: Columbus and the Pilgrims

**Unit Length:** 14 instructional days

**Description:** Students are introduced to key figures, events, and ideas associated with two episodes in the founding of the United States of America-the first voyage of Columbus in 1492 and the arrival of the Pilgrims in 1620.

**ELA Standards:
RI.K.2:** With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.K.3:**With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**Big Ideas:**

- The arrival of Columbus and, more than 100 years later, the Pilgrims in North America, are important events in the history of the United States.
- There are similarities and differences between the two voyages of Columbus and the Pilgrims, their motivations, and their interactions with Native Americans.

## Knowledge Domain 10: Colonial Towns and Townspeople

**Unit Length:** 15 instructional days

**Description:** Students are introduced to the early history of the United States as they explore what daily life was like for people in colonial times.

**ELA Standards:
RI.K.2:** With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.K.3:**With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**W.K.2:**Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

**W.K.3:**Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students draw on knowledge from Columbus and the Pilgrims as they learn more about America’s history during colonial times.
- The daily life of people during the colonial era are contrasted with students’ present-day experiences.
- The differences between living in a town versus living in the country are explored.

## Knowledge Domain 11: Taking Care of the Earth

**Unit Length:** 17 instructional days

**Description:** Students are introduced to the importance of environmental awareness and conservation as they become familiar with the earth’s natural resources and how people’s actions affect the environment.

**ELA Standards:
RI.K.2:** With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**W.K.2:**Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

**W.K.3:**Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

**Big Ideas:**

- People’s actions affect the environment in which we live.
- Earth’s natural resources include land, water, and air.
- The best way to conserve Earth’s resources is to practice the three Rs of conservation—reduce, reuse, and recycle.

## Grade 1

## Skills Unit 1

**Unit Length:** 33 instructional days

**Description:** Unit 1 provides a review of the sounds and spellings from kindergarten. Students are introduced to Tricky Spellings (spellings that can be sounded out more than one way) and Tricky Words (words that cannot be sounded out using the letter-sound correspondences taught so far).

**ELA Standards:
RL.1.1:** Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

**RF.1.2:**Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds.

**RF.1.3.a:**Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs.

**RF.1.3.b:**Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

**RF.1.4.a:**Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

**L.1.2.d:**Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students read the decodable reader Snap Shots to practice fluency.
- The stories (chapters) in the reader are told from Beth’s point of view. Beth is a young girl who travels to the United Kingdom to visit friends.
- Students answer comprehension questions orally and/or in writing after reading each story.

## Skills Unit 2

**Unit Length:** 20 instructional days

**Description:** This unit introduces five vowel sounds and the most common spelling for each sound. Students learn to read and write words with separated digraphs. This unit also includes grammar lessons on nouns as well as practice with new Tricky Words.

**ELA Standards:
RF.1.3.b:** Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

**RF.1.3.c:**Know final –e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds.

**RF.1.4.a:**Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

**RF.1.4.b:**Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

**L.1.1.b:**Use common, proper, and possessive nouns.

**L.1.2.d:**Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students read the decodable Reader Gran to practice fluency.
- The stories follow the character Gran, a well-traveled grandmother, who visits her
- grandchildren, Josh and Jen.
- Students answer comprehension questions orally and/or in writing after reading each story.

## Skills Unit 3

**Unit Length:** 20 instructional days

**Description:** Unit 3 introduces students to five vowel sounds and the most common spelling for each sound, five new Tricky Words, and the Tricky Spelling “oo”. Grammar exercises focus on identifying verbs and verb tense (regular present, past, and future). Students begin formal instruction in the writing process with a focus on narrative writing.

**ELA Standards:
RF.1.3.b:** Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

**RF.1.4:**Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.1.3:**Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

**L.1.1.j:**Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

**L.1.2.d:**Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**L.1.2.e:**Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students read the decodable Reader Fables to practice fluency.
- The Reader has versions of famous fables, most of
- which are attributable to the ancient Greek storyteller Aesop.
- Fables are special types of stories that teach important lessons or morals.
- Fables often feature talking animals as main characters.
- Students answer comprehension questions orally and/or in writing after reading each story.

## Skills Unit 4

**Unit Length:** 29 instructional days

**Description:** This unit introduces the most common spellings for r-controlled vowel sounds. Students learn the concept of a syllable and practice two-syllable words. Students are introduced to past-tense verb forms ending with –ed as they continue to work with nouns and verbs in phrases. They are introduced to adjectives and they practice descriptive writing.

**ELA Standards:
RF.1.3.d:** Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word.

**RF.1.3.e:**Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.

**RF.1.3.g:**Recognize and read grade-appropriate spelled words.

**W.1.2:**Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**L.1.1.e:**Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future.

**L.1.2.d:**Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students read the decodable Reader The Green Fern Zoo to practice fluency.
- The main character is fictional, but the information in the book is factual.
- Informational text features such as headings and a picture glossary are introduced.
- Students answer comprehension questions orally and/or in writing after reading each story.

## Skills Unit 5

**Unit Length:** 23 instructional days

**Description: **Students begin learning spelling alternatives that make up the advanced code. They practice making nouns plural and changing spelling when adding suffixes. In grammar, students identify sentence types (statements, questions, and exclamations) and practice creating longer sentences. They plan, draft, and edit a letter in which they express their opinions to the main character of the Student Reader.

**ELA Standards:**

**RF.1.3.f:** Read words with inflectional endings.

**W.1.1:** Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure.

**L.1.1.c:** Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences.

**L.1.1.j: **Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

**L.1.2.d:** Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students read the decodable Reader Kate’s Book to practice fluency.
- The Reader tells the story of a girl named Kate who writes a book about her summer vacation. The premise is that students are reading the book that Kate wrote, which her grandmother also illustrated.
- Students answer comprehension questions orally and/or in writing after reading each story.

## Skills Unit 6

**Unit Length:** 26 instructional days

**Description:** Students continue to work with several spelling alternatives for consonant sounds. Students review nouns and learn to match pronouns to the nouns to which they refer. They plan, draft, and edit a personal narrative.

**ELA Standards:
RF.1.3.b:** Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

**RF.1.4:**Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.1.3:**Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

**L.1.1.d:**Use personal and possessive pronouns.

**L.1.2.d:**Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**Big Ideas:**

- Students read the decodable Reader Grace to practice fluency.
- The Reader is about a girl named Grace who lives on a farm in the Midwest. The stories take us through her daily life on a farm and in the country.
- Students answer comprehension questions orally and/or in writing after reading each story.

## Skills Unit 7

**Unit Length:** 20 instructional days

**Description:** Students continue to learn the advanced code, focusing on spelling alternatives for vowel sounds. In addition, students learn about the use of conjunctions and commas as well as noun-verb agreement in sentences. Students practice the writing process by planning, drafting, and editing an informative/explanatory text.

**ELA Standards:**

**RF.1.3.b: **Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.

**RF.1.3.e:** Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables.

**RF.1.3.g:** Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

**W.1.2:** Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**L.1.1.c:** Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences.

**L.1.1.g: Use frequently occurring conjunctions.
L.1.2.d:** Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

**Big Ideas:**

- The Reader focuses on a young girl, Kay, and her friend Martez, a Mexican-American boy. Kay, Martez, and Kay’s family go on a trip to Mexico.
- The text incorporates Grade 1 history and geography topics from the CKLA Knowledge strand.
- Students answer comprehension questions orally and/or in writing after reading each story.

## Knowledge Domain 1: Fables and Stories

**Unit Length:** 17 instructional days

**Description:** In this unit, students are introduced to fables and stories that have delighted people for generations, including Aesop’s fables, a folktale of Anansi the Spider, and Beatrix Potter’s, The Tale of Peter Rabbit. Students increase their vocabulary and reading comprehension skills, learn valuable lessons about virtues and behavior, and become familiar with the key elements of a story.

**ELA Standards:
RL.1.2a:** Retell stories, including key details.

**W.1.3:**Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- Fables and stories have delighted generations of people around the world and are essential for cultural literacy.
- They contain valuable lessons about ethics and behavior, and students will develop an understanding of different types of fiction.
- This domain helps students develop a strong foundation for the understanding and enjoyment of fiction.

## Knowledge Domain 2: The Human Body

**Unit Length:** 17 instructional days

**Description:** Students are introduced to the systems of the human body and the function of major organs. They learn about care of the body, germs and diseases, vaccines, and keys to good health.

**ELA Standards:
RI.1.2:** Identify main topic and retell key details of a text.

**W.1.2:**Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- The body is a network of systems comprised of organs that work together to perform vital jobs.
- There are many parts and functions related to the skeletal, muscular, digestive, circulatory, and nervous systems.
- Germs can cause disease; some activities will help stop the spread of germs.
- The five keys of good health are: eat well, exercise, sleep, keep clean, and have regular checkups.

## Knowledge Domain 3: Different Lands, Different Stories

**Unit Length:** 16 instructional days

**Description: **Students encounter different cultures from around the world as they explore the ways in which folktales from different lands treat similar themes or characters, including variations of the Cinderella story, the adventures of supernaturally small characters, and the exploits of cunning tricksters.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.1.3:** Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

**RL.1.9:** Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

**Big Ideas:**

- The fairy tales and folktales we’ve grown up with are known throughout the world; each culture has its own unique retelling.
- There are many common themes in these tales, such as people who are treated unfairly and ultimately find happiness, supernaturally small characters, and cunning animals who try and trick children.

## Knowledge Domain 4: Early World Civilizations

**Unit Length:** 18 instructional days

**Description:** What is needed to build a civilization? Going back to the ancient Middle East, students explore Mesopotamia and Egypt and learn about the importance of rivers, farming, writing, laws, art, and beliefs.

**ELA Standards:
RI.1.2:** Identify main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.1.3:**Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**W.1.3:**Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- Civilizations have fundamental features, including cities and government, forms of communication, and religion.
- The Tigris and Euphrates rivers were vital to the establishment of Mesopotamia, from which we received the earliest form of writing and first codification of laws.
- Egypt was founded on the Nile river, and its contributions include hieroglyphics, pharaohs, pyramids, and the significance of mummification.

## Knowledge Domain 5: Early American Civilizations

**Unit Length:** 18 instructional days

**Description:** Students compare and contrast key features of the early civilizations of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca, and explore the development of cities such as Tenochtitlan and Machu Picchu. They are also introduced to the work of archaeologists who unearth ancient civilizations.

**ELA Standards:**

**RI.1.2:** Identify main topic and retell key details of a text.

**W.1.2:** Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- The Maya, Aztec, and Inca civilizations had shared features, including farming, the establishment of cities and government, and religion.
- Despite having common features, these civilizations were all unique in their own ways.
- Much of what we learn about people from the past is discovered by archeologists, who study artifacts from the past and use that information to make informed hypotheses

## Knowledge Domain 6: Astronomy

**Unit Length:** 16 instructional days

**Description:** In this introduction to the solar system, students learn about Earth in relation to the moon, the other planets, the sun, and the stars. They learn about the sun as a source of light, heat and energy. They are introduced to space exploration, including the Apollo missions to the moon.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.1.5: **Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types.

**RI.1.2: **Identify main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.1.9:** Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic.

**Big Ideas:**

- The Earth is one of many different celestial bodies within our solar system.
- The sun, stars, moon, and other planets relate to the earth’s position in space in definite ways.
- The sun is a star and the source of light, heat, and energy for the earth.
- NASA, the Space Race, the Apollo missions and astronauts have all contributed to what we know about space.

## Knowledge Domain 7: The History of the Earth

**Unit Length:** 15 instructional days

**Description:** Students learn about the geographical features of the earth’s surface, the layers of the earth, rocks and minerals, volcanoes, geysers, fossils, and dinosaurs.

**ELA Standards:
RI.1.2:** Identify main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.1.3:**Describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

**RI.1.5:**Know and use various text features to locate key facts or information in a text.

**W.1.2:**Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- The earth is comprised of various layers, each with its own characteristics.
- Geographical features, such as volcanoes and geysers give us information about these layers.
- Rocks and minerals are important in our daily lives. They are taken from the crust and used in many ways.
- There are three types of rock, each with their own characteristics. Fossils are found in rock and give us knowledge about the history of living things on Earth.

## Knowledge Domain 8: Animals and Habitats

**Unit Length:** 16 instructional days

**Description:** Students focus on the interconnectedness of living things with their physical environment as they learn what a habitat is and explore plants and animals in specific types of habitats.

**ELA Standards:**

**RI.1.2: **Identify main topic and retell key details of a text.

**W.1.2:** Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- All living things are interconnected to both their environments and other living things.
- Different plants and animals are indigenous to specific habitats, often suited to them through unique characteristics that enable them to adapt to that habitat.
- Animals can be classified by the types of foods they eat, and one example of interconnectedness is the food chain to which all living things belong.

## Knowledge Domain 9: Fairy Tales

**Unit Length:** 16 instructional days

**Description: **Students are introduced to fairy tales that have been favorites for generations, including Sleeping Beauty, Rumpelstiltskin, The Frog Prince, Hansel and Gretel, and Jack and the Beanstalk. Students learn about the Brothers Grimm, identify common elements of fairy tales, consider problems and solutions, make interpretations, and compare and contrast different tales.

**ELA Standards:**

**RL.1.2a:** Retell stories, including key details.

**RL.1.3:** Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

**RL.1.9:** Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories.

**W.1.3**: Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- Fairy tales are a unique type of fiction, with distinct elements, that still maintain traditional story grammar.
- Students will explore concepts such as bravery and heroism, good and evil, and valuable life lessons.
- The Brothers Grimm shared these tales with others because of their ability to make people feel happy, sad, and sometimes afraid.

## Knowledge Domain 10: A New Nation: American Independence

**Unit Length:** 21 instructional days

**Description:** Students learn about the birth of the United States of America. They are introduced to important historical figures and events in the story of how the thirteen colonies became an independent nation. They also learn the significance of patriotic symbols, including the U.S. flag, the Liberty Bell, and the bald eagle.

**ELA Standards:
RI.1.2:** Identify main topic and retell key details of a text.

**RI.1.6:**Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text.

**W.1.2:**Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure.

**Big Ideas:**

- Several important historical figures and events led to how the thirteen colonies determined and gained their independence from Britain to become the United States of America.
- The British imposed taxes on the thirteen colonies, which led to the Boston Tea Party, the Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence.
- The roles of women, Native Americans, and African Americans during this time period are highlighted.

## Grade 2

## Grade 3

## Unit 1 The Stories Julian Tells

**Unit Length: **48 instructional days

**Description:**

**ELA Standards:**

**Reading Literature**

**RL.3.2:** Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through the key details in the text.

**RL.3.3:** Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

**RL.3.6:**** **Distinguish the student’s point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

**Reading Informational Text**

**RI.3.2:**** **Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

**RI.3.5:** Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.

**RI.3.7:** Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

**Reading Foundational Skills:**

**RF.3.3:** Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

a. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and suffixes and derivational suffixes.

b. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.

c. Decode multisyllable words.

d. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

**Writing Standards**

**W.3.1:** Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

**W.3.3:** Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

**W.3.5:** With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

**W.3.8:** Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

**Speaking and Listening:**

**SL.3.2:** Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.3.3:** Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

**SL.3.4:** Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

**SL.3.5: **Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace; add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details.

**Language:**

**L.3.1:**** **Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

**L.3.2:** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

**L.3.4:**** **Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

**L.3.5:**** **Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

**These standards are embedded in every unit:**

**Reading Literature and Reading Informational Text:**

**RL. /RI.3.1: **Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

**RL.3.10:** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RI.3.10:** By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**Reading Foundations:**

**RF.3.4:** Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

b. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

**Writing:**

**W.3.4: **With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.

**W.3.6: **With guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing, using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.3.10: **Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**Speaking/Listening:**

**SL.3.1:** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

**Language:**

**L.3.3: **Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

**L.3.6:** Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).

### Enduring Understandings:

- Stories and books are important for learning about yourself and others.
- Storytelling can be a way to connect to others and pass on family history and traditions.
- Readers notice when characters change and think about the lessons that the character has learned.

### Essential Questions:

- How can a reader determine the central message in a story?
- How can a reader understand a character’s motivations, feelings, and actions when they are put in different situations?

## Unit 2 Because of Winn Dixie

**Unit Length:** 46 instructional days

**Description:** Students read literary and informational texts to understand the value of companionship, the joy of finding friends in unexpected places, and the significance of building a community of different perspectives. Students express their understanding by explaining how characters change throughout Because of Winn-Dixie based on the relationships formed during the book. Students also engage in independent reading of texts based on similar themes to further develop their understanding.

### ELA Standards:

Reading Literature:

**RL.3.2:** Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through the key details in the text.

**RL.3.3:** Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

**RL.3.4:** Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

**RL.3.5:** Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

**RL.3.6:** Distinguish the student’s point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

**RL.3.9:** Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).

**Reading Informational Text:**

**RI.3.2:** Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

**RI.3.3: **Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

**RI.3.4: **Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject.

**RI.3.7:** Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

**RI.3.8:** Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).

**RI.3.9:**** ** Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

**Reading Foundational Skills**

**RF.3.3:**** ** Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

a. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and suffixes and derivational suffixes.

b. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.

c. Decode multisyllable words.

d. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

**Writing Standards**

**W.3.1: **Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

**W.3.2:** Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

**W.3.8:** Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

**Speaking and Listening:**

**SL.3.1:** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

**SL.3.2:** Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.3.3:** Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

**SL.3.4:** Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

**SL.3.6:** Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task, audience, and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

**Language Standards:**

**L.3.1** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

**L.3.2** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

**L.3.5 **Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

**These standards are embedded in every unit:**

**RL. /RI.3.1** Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

**RL.3.10** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RI.3.10** By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RF.3.4** Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

b. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

**SL.3.1** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

**W.3.4** With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.

**W.3.5** With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

**W.3.6** With guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing, using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.3.10** Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.3.4 **Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

**L.3.6 **Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).

### Enduring Understandings:

- Friendship can be found in unexpected places.
- Readers think about the struggles characters go through, the lessons characters learn, and think about how this may change the way they themselves act.

### Essential Questions:

- What is the central message or theme that the author wants us to learn by reading this novel?
- How can I look closely at a character to help me think about what kind of person they are?

## Unit 3 Louisiana Purchase

**Unit Length: **49 instructional days

**Description:** Students read literary and informational texts to learn about the Louisiana Purchase and the characteristics of pioneers during this time period. While exploring these texts, including quotes from primary source documents, students develop their understanding of narrative writing and make connections between sentences and paragraphs in a text. Students express their understanding of the Louisiana Purchase by explaining the events leading up to the acquisition of the territory and the results of those events.

### ELA Standards:

**Reading Literature:**

**RL.3.2:** Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through the key details in the text.

**RL.3.3:** Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

**RL.3.4: **Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

**RL.3.5:** Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

**RL.3.6:** Distinguish the student’s point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters.

**Reading Informational Text:**

**RI.3.2:** Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.

**RI.3.3:** Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect.

**RI.3.4: **Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject.

**RI.3.5:** Use text features and search tools (e.g., key words, sidebars, hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently.

**RI.3.6:** Distinguish the student’s point of view from that of the author of a text.

**RI.3.7:** Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur).

**RI.3.8: **Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence).

**RI.3.9:** Compare and contrast the most important points and key details presented in two texts on the same topic.

**Reading Foundational Skills:**

**RF.3.3:** Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

- Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and suffixes and derivational suffixes.
- Decode words with common Latin suffixes.
- Decode multisyllable words.
- Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

**Writing:**

**W.3.1:** Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

**W.3.2:** Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

**W.3.3:** Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

**W.3.8:** Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

**Speaking and Listening:**

**SL.3.2:** Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.3.3:** Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

**SL.3.4:** Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

**SL.3.6:** Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task, audience, and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.

**Language:**

**L.3.1:** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

**L.3.2:** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

**L.3.5:** Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

**These standards are embedded in every unit:**

**RL. /RI.3.1:** Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

**RL.3.10:** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RI.3.10:** By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RF.3.4: **Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

b. Read on-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

**SL.3.1:** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

**W.3.4:** With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.

**W.3.5:** With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

**W.3.6: **With guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing, using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.3.10:** Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.3.4: **Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

**L.3.6:** Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).

### Enduring Understandings:

- The spirit of exploration and the values of American pioneers were evident during the early 1800s.
- Narrative writing and primary source documents can help a reader understand a person or character’s point of view.

### Essential Questions:

- What events led to the United States acquiring the Louisiana Territory?
- What are the causes and effects of the Louisiana Purchase?

## Unit 4 Cajun Folktales

**Unit Length:**

**Description:** Students read folktales to learn how storytelling can be entertaining as well as educational. Students develop an understanding of Louisiana history and culture as well as character and theme development. Students express their understanding by writing their opinion about the main character’s actions. This mini Guidebook unit will build student capacity for future Guidebook coursework.

### ELA Standards:

**Reading Literature:**

**RL.3.2:** Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through the key details in the text.

**RL.3.3:** Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.

**RL.3.4: **Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

**RL.3.5:** Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections.

**RL.3.7:** Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustration contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting).

**Reading Foundational Skills:**

**RF.3.3:** Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

a. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and suffixes and derivational suffixes.

b. Decode words with common Latin suffixes.

c. Decode multisyllable words.

d. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.

**Writing Standards**

**W.3.1: **Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

**Speaking and Listening:**

**SL.3.2:** Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.3.3:** Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail.

**SL.3.4: **Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking clearly at an understandable pace.

**Language:**

**L.3.1:** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

**L.3.2:** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

**L.3.5:** Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

**These standards are embedded in every unit:**

**Reading Literature:**

**RL.3.1:** Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

**RL3.4: **Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language.

**RL.3.10:** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**Reading Foundations:**

**RF.3.4:** Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.

**Writing**:

**W.3.4:** With guidance and support from adults, produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose.

**W.3.8: **Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

**W.3.10:** Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**Speaking and Listening:**

**SL.3.1:** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

**Language:**

**L.3.4:** Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

**L.3.6:** Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e.g., After dinner that night we went looking for them).

### Enduring Understandings:

- Storytelling can be entertaining as well as educational.
- Cajun culture and traditions are part of Louisiana history.

### Essential Questions:

- What are elements of a folktale?
- Why is storytelling important?
- How does understanding a character’s thoughts, feelings, and actions help me as a reader?
- How do I form an opinion, write about it and provide reasons?

## Grade 4

## Unit 1 Hurricanes

**Unit Length:** 53 days

**Description: **Students read literary and informational texts to learn about hurricanes and their impact on Louisiana. Students understand how history involves the sharing of memories and the differences between firsthand and secondhand accounts. Students express their understanding of the impact of hurricanes on Louisiana by writing a first person narrative about an experience in a hurricane based on texts they have read.

### Target Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.4.2** Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

**RL.4.3**Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

Reading Informational Text:

**RI.4.2**Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

**RI.4.3**Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

**RI.4.7**Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

**RI.4.8**Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

**RI.4.9**Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

**Writing:
W.4.1a-d **Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.

c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).

d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

**W.4.2a-e**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

**W.4.3a-e**Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

b. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.

c. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events.

d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.

e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

**W.4.7**Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

**W.4.8**Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

**W.4.9**Draw relevant evidence from grade-appropriate literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**Language:
L.4.1a-g** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).

b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.

c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.

d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).

e. Form and use prepositional phrases.

f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.

g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).

**L.4.2a-d**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use correct capitalization.

b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.

c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.

d. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

**L.4.3a-b**Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.

b. Choose punctuation for effect.

**Speaking and Listening:**

**SL.4.4** Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

**SL.4.5** Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes.

**SL.4.6** Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task, audience, and situation.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:**

**RL. /RI.4.1** Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**RL.4.10** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RI.4.10** By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RF.4.4** Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.4.4** Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.4.5** With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

**W.4.6 **With some guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.4.10** Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.4.4 **Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word

(e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

**L.4.6 **Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

### Enduring Understandings:

- Hurricanes are powerful storms that impact individuals and the environment.
- First-hand and second-hand accounts provide valuable information about how storms have impacted our environment and our lives.

### Essential Questions:

- How do hurricanes impact the environment?
- How can people prepare for a hurricane?

## Unit 2 American Revolution

**Unit Length:** 58.5 days

**Description:** Students read texts about the American Revolution to understand the decisions and choices colonists had to make leading up to and during the Revolutionary War. Students express their understanding of the concept of "taking sides" and how, despite having different points of view about an issue or a situation, those engaged in conflict can still share common ground.

### Target Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.4.2** Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

**RL.4.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes.

**Reading Informational Text:**

RI.4.2Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.

RI.4.2

**RI.4.3**Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text.

**RI.4.4**Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area.

**RI.4.7**Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.

**RI.4.8**Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.

**RI.4.9**Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

**Writing:**

**W.4.1a-d**Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.

c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).

d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

**W.4.2a-e**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

**W.4.7**Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

**W.4.8**Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

**W.4.9**Draw relevant evidence from grade-appropriate literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Language:

**L.4.1a-g**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Use relative pronouns (who, whose, whom, which, that) and relative adverbs (where, when, why).

b. Form and use the progressive (e.g., I was walking; I am walking; I will be walking) verb tenses.

c. Use modal auxiliaries (e.g., can, may, must) to convey various conditions.

d. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e.g., a small red bag rather than a red small bag).

e. Form and use prepositional phrases.

f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.

g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).

**L.4.2a-d**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use correct capitalization.

b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.

c. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence.

d. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

**L.4.3a-b**Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.

b. Choose punctuation for effect.

c. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion).

**L.4.5**Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.

b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

c. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms).

**L.4.6**Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

**Speaking and Listening:**

**SL.4.1**Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that

preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

**SL.4.2**Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.4.4**Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

**SL.4.6**Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task, audience, and situation.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:**

**RL. /RI.4.1** Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**RL.4.10** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RI.4.10** By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RF.4.4** Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.4.4** Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.4.5** With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

**W.4.6** With some guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.4.10** Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.4.4** Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

**L.4.6 **Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

### Enduring Understandings:

- People with different points of view can find common ground.
- The Revolutionary War impacted America in a variety of ways.

### Essential Questions:

- How do choices and experiences help a person determine their point of view on a topic or issue?
- Were the colonists justified in declaring their independence and fighting the Revolutionary War?

Unit 3 The Lightning Thief

**Unit Length:** 62.5 days

**Description:** Students read literary and informational texts to understand traditional stories that focus on common patterns in literature, specifically the quest. Students express their understanding of how literature helps us make sense of the world, and how literature from the past influences our current lives and contemporary stories.

### Target Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.4.2 **Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text.

**RL.4.3**Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g.,

a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

**RL.4.7**Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text.

**RL.4.9**Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures.

**Writing:
W.4.1a-d** Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

b. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details.

c. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition).

d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

**W.4.2a-e**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

a. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because).

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

**W.4.7**Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

**W.4.8**Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources.

**W.4.9**Draw relevant evidence from grade-appropriate literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

a. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e.g. “Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text [e.g. a characters’ thoughts, words, or actions].”).

b. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e.g. “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”).

**Language:
L.4.1e-f** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

e. Form and use prepositional phrases.

f. Produce complete sentences, recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.

g. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.g., to, too, two; there, their).

**L.4.2b**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

b. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text.

**L.4.3a**Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.

**L.4.5**Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

a. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e.g., as pretty as a picture) in context.

**Speaking and Listening:
SL.4.1** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information, and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion.

**SL.4.2**Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.4.4**Report on a topic or text, tell a story, or recount an experience in an organized manner, using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

**SL.4.6**Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e.g., presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e.g., small-group discussion); use formal English when appropriate to task, audience, and situation.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:**

**RL. /RI.4.1** Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**RL.4.10** By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RI.4.10** By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RF.4.4** Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.4.4** Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.4.5** With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, and editing.

**W.4.6** With some guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.4.10** Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.4.4** Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., definitions, examples, or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., telegraph, photograph, autograph).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

**L.4.6 **Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

### Enduring Understandings:

- The quest motif is the pursuit of an important item or knowledge that often leads to a character becoming a hero.
- An author can use a theme in a story to teach a life lesson.

### Essential Questions:

- How do lessons learned from literature impact us and our modern culture?
- What is a myth and what can we learn from them?

## Grade 5

## Unit 1 The Making of a Scientist

**Unit Length:** 48 days

**Description:** Students read informational and literary texts to understand how different scientific theories have changed over time. They express their understanding about these theories and the process of scientific inquiry by gathering evidence and comparing and contrasting different theories.

### Target Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.5.2** Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

**RL.5.3**Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

**RL.5.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language and connotative meanings.

**RL.5.5**Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

**Reading Informational Text:**

RI.5.2Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

RI.5.2

**RI.5.3**Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

**RI.5.4**Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

**RI.5.6**Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

**RI.5.7**Utilize information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

**RI.5.8**Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

**RI.5.9**Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

**Reading Foundational Skills:
RF.5.3a** Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

a. Use combined knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

**Writing:**

W.5.2Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

W.5.2

a. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

**W.5.5**With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a different approach.

**W.5.9**Draw relevant evidence from grade-appropriate literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

Language:

**L.5.1**Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.

b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.

c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.

d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.

e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).

**L.5.2**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.

b. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.

c. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e.g., Yes, thank you), to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e.g., It’s true, isn’t it?), and to indicate direct address (e.g., Is that you, Steve?).

d. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works.

e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly, consulting references as needed.

Speaking and Listening:

**SL.5.1**Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

**SL.5.2**Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.5.4**Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:
RL. /RI.5.1** Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**RL.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RI.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RF.5.4**Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.5.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.5.5**With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a different approach.

**W.5.6**With some guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.5.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.5.4**Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

**L.5.6**Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

### Enduring Understandings:

- The process of scientific inquiry allows for gathering evidence and comparing and contrasting different theories.
- Authors can use short stories or memoirs to teach a lesson.

### Essential Questions:

- How is a scientific theory formed and how does it change over time?
- What is the importance of thinking like a scientist?

Unit 2 The Birchbark House

**Unit Length: **58.5 days

**Description:** Students read literary and informational texts about how Native Americans and global explorers laid the foundation for the United States. Students understand and express their understanding of how we learn about our past and how that impacts who we are today by writing about character and theme development and discussing how point of view is important for constructing meaning.

### Target Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.5.2** Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

**RL.5.3**Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

**RL.5.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language and connotative meanings

**RL.5.5**Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem.

**RL.5.6**Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

Reading Informational Text:

**RI.5.3**Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

**RI.5.4**Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area.

**RI.5.6**Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic, noting important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent.

**RI.5.7**Utilize information from multiple print or digital sources, demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently.

**RI.5.8**Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text, identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s).

**RI.5.9**Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

Reading Foundational Skills:

**RF.5.3a**Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

a. Use combined knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

**Writing:**

**W.5.1a-d**Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.

c. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).

d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

**W.5.2**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

a. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

**W.5.8**Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

Language:

**L.5.5**Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

a. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.

b. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs.

c. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words.

**Speaking and Listening:**

SL.5.1Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

SL.5.1

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

**SL.5.2**Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.5.3**Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how each claim is supported by reasons and evidence.

**SL.5.6**Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task, audience, and situation.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:
RL. /RI.5.**1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**RL.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RI.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RF.5.4**Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.5.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.5.5**With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a different approach.

**W.5.6**With some guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.5.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.5.4**Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

**L.5.6**Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

### Enduring Understandings:

- Authors teach us life lessons through characters and their development.
- The foundation of the United States is based on Native Americans and early explorers.

### Essential Questions:

- How does an author of fiction use real events to teach us about the past?
- What was the impact of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World?

Unit 3 The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe

**Unit Length:** 67.5 days

**Description:** Students read literary texts to understand that even in the most fantastical settings, literature can teach us real lessons about life. Students explore the opposition of good vs. evil, the value in courage, adventure, forgiveness, and honesty. They begin to consider how authors convince readers to believe the impossible and discuss the history and use of special effects in movies to begin to see how imagination and creativity can inspire story-telling. Students express their understanding of narrative point of view and the features of the fantasy genre by considering the stories from another perspective.

### Target Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.5.2** Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text.

**RL.5.3**Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact).

**RL.5.4**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language and connotative meanings.

**RL.5.6**Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described.

**Reading Informational Text:
RI.5.2** Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details; summarize the text.

**RI.5.3**Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

**RI.5.9**Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably.

**Reading Foundational Skills:**

RF.5.3aKnow and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

RF.5.3a

a. Use combined knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and morphology (e.g., roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context.

**Writing:
W.5.1** Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

a. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose.

b. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details.

c. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently, specifically).

d. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.

**W.5.2**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

a. Introduce a topic clearly, provide a general observation and focus, and group related information logically; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic.

c. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., in contrast, especially).

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.

**W.5.3**Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.

a. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.

b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.

c. Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.

d. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.

e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

**W.5.8**Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources.

**W.5.9**Draw relevant evidence from grade-appropriate literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**Language:**

L.5.1Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

L.5.1

a. Explain the function of conjunctions, prepositions, and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences.

b. Form and use the perfect (e.g., I had walked; I have walked; I will have walked) verb tenses.

c. Use verb tense to convey various times, sequences, states, and conditions.

d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense.

e. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g., either/or, neither/nor).

**L.5.3**Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Expand, combine, and reduce sentences for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.

b. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e.g., dialects, registers) used in stories, dramas, or poems.

**Speaking and Listening:
SL.5.1** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that

preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions.

**SL.5.2**Summarize a written text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.

**SL.5.4**Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:
RL. /RI.5.1** Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**RL.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RI.5.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

**RF.5.4**Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.

**W.5.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.5.5**With guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a different approach.

**W.5.6**With some guidance and support from adults, produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.5.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.5.4**Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

**L.5.6**Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition).

### Enduring Understandings:

- Reading fantastical stories can teach us lessons about life.
- Visual representations such as graphs and illustrations, can support and enhance a reader’s understanding of the text.

### Essential Questions:

- How does the point of view or perspective help a reader have a deeper understanding of the text?
- How does an author convince readers to believe the impossible?

## Grade 6

## Unit 1 Hatchet

**Unit Length:** 58 days

**Description:** Students read literary and informational texts to understand how positive thinking, slowing down to think clearly, problem solving, and constant vigilance support survival in the face of grave danger and overwhelming odds. Students express their understanding of characters in literature by analyzing the struggle of man versus nature and the life lessons we can learn from others’ survival situations.

### Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.6.2:** Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RL.6.3:**Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves towards a resolution.

**RL.6.4:**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

**RL.6.5:**Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

**RL.6.6:**Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

**Reading Informational Texts:
RI.6.2:** Determine a central ideal of a text and how it is conveyed through particular detail; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RI.6.6:**Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

**Writing:**

W.6.1: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

W.6.1

a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.

b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.

c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.

d. Establish and maintain a formal style.

e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

**W.6.2:**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

**W.6.3:**Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

**W.6.9:**Draw relevant evidence from grade-appropriate literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**Speaking and Listening:
SL.6.1: **Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.

b. Follow rules for collegial discussion, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

**SL.6.4:**Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

**Language:
L.6.1:** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjunctive, objective, possessive)

b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).

c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.

d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).

e. Recognize variation from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.

**L.6.2:**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.

b. Spell correctly.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:
RL./RI.6.1** Cite relevant textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**RL.6.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RI.6.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**W.6.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.6.5**With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a different approach.

**W.6.6**Produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.6.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.6.4**Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.

d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

**L.6.6**Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

### Enduring Understandings:

- A person’s character is revealed during difficult times, as well as good times.
- Bravery is the ability to do something you fear even though you are afraid at the time.

### Essential Questions:

- Does Hatchet have instructional value as a survival guide?
- What life lessons can we learn by reading other people’s stories of survival?

Unit 2 If Stones Could Speak

**Unit Length:** 48.5 days

**Description: **Students read literary and informational texts to understand that archaeologists, like detectives, work to piece together the past through investigation. Students express their understanding by analyzing evidence and drawing meaningful conclusions about history, texts, and their environment.

### Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.6.2:** Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RL.6.4:**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

**Reading Informational Texts:
RI.6.2:** Determine a central ideal of a text and how is it conveyed through particular detail; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RI.6.3:**Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes).

**RI.6.4:**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings.

**RI.6.5:**Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas.

**RI.6.6:**Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text.

**RI.6.8:**Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

**RI.6.9:**Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person).

**Writing:
W.6.1: **Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

**W.6.2:**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

a. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.

c. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.

d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.

e. Establish and maintain a formal style.

f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.

**W.6.3:**Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

**W.6.7:**Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

**W.6.8:**Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

**W.6.9:**Draw relevant evidence from grade-appropriate literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

**Speaking and Listening:
SL.6.1:** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.

b. Follow rules for collegial discussion, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.

c. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.

d. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

**SL.6.2:**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.

b. Spell correctly.

**Language:
L.6.1:** Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjunctive, objective, possessive)

b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).

c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.

d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).

**L.6.2:**Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.

b. Spell correctly.

**L.6.3:**Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

**L.6.5:**Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:
RL./RI.6.1** Cite relevant textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**RL.6.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RI.6.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**W.6.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.6.5**With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a different approach.

**W.6.6**Produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.6.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.6.4**Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.

d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

**L.6.6**Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

### Enduring Understandings:

- Archaeology allows us to understand what life was like in the past.
- Thinking about something in a new or fresh way can help us discover new secrets about our world.

### Essential Questions:

- What is meant by the saying, “If stones could speak…?”
- How does an author support his/her ideas throughout the text?

Unit 3 The Witch of Blackbird Pond

**Unit Length: **67.5 days

**Description:** Students read literary and informational texts to understand the influence of family expectations and values on the development of one’s personal identity. Students express their understanding of how informational texts in coordination with literary texts enhance their comprehension of time periods and the theme and setting of the novel.

### Standards:

**Reading Literature:
RL.6.2:** Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RL.6.3:**Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves towards a resolution.

**RL.6.4:**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

**RL.6.5:**Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

**RL.6.6:**Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.

**Reading Informational Texts:
RI.6.2:** Determine a central ideal of a text and how it is conveyed through particular detail; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

**RI.6.4:**Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language, connotative, and technical meanings.

**Writing:
W.6.1:** Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

**W.6.2:**Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

**W.6.6:**Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others; demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single setting.

**W.6.7:**Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

**Speaking and Listening:
SL.6.1:** Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

**SL.6.3:**Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.

**Language
L.6.3:** Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

**The following standards are embedded in all units:
RL. /RI.6.1** Cite relevant textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.

**RL.6.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**RI.6.10**By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

**W.6.4**Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

**W.6.5**With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a different approach.

**W.6.6**Produce and publish grade-appropriate writing using technology, either independently or in collaboration with others.

**W.6.10**Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

**L.6.4**Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.

b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).

c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.

d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

**L.6.6**Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

### Enduring Understandings:

- A person’s identity is influenced by family values and expectations.
- Various literary texts can present a theme from different points of view.

### Essential Questions:

- How can an author use history to influence the setting and plot of literary texts?
- What is loyalty and how do we show our loyalty to what we believe in?

## Grade 7

## Grade 8

## English I

## English II

## English III

## English IV

## Science

- Grade K
- Grade 1
- Grade 2
- Grade 3
- Grade 4
- Grade 5
- Grade 6
- Grade 7
- Grade 8
- Physics
- Chemistry
- Environmental Science
- Biology
- Physical Science

## Grade K

## Unit 1 Animals and Energy

**Description:** Students will make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface. They will use tools and materials to design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on an area. Students will link this learning to construct arguments supported by evidence of how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs.

### Science Standards:

**K-PS3-1** Make observations to determine the effect of sunlight on Earth’s surface.

**K-PS3-2** Use tools and materials to design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on an area

**K-ESS2-2** Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants and animals (including humans) can change the environment to meet their needs.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Fennec foxes stay underground during the day.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe the effect of sunlight on different parts of Earth’s surface.
- Design and build a structure that will reduce the warming effect of sunlight on an area.
- Construct an opinion supported by evidence for how Fennec foxes change the environment to meet their needs.

## Unit 2 Earth and Human Activity

**Description:** Student will be communicating solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.

### Science Standards:

**K-ESS3-3** Communicate solutions that will reduce the impact of humans on the land, water, air, and/or other living things in the local environment.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Sea turtles choke on plastic bags found in oceans.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Design and share a solution that will reduce the impact of humans on sea turtles.
- Describe how humans impact local animals and three ways our class can help reduce that impact.

## Unit 3 Weather

**Description:** Students will ask questions to obtain information for the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for and respond to weather. Students will also use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time.

### Science Standards:

**K-ESS3-2** Use and share observations of local weather conditions to describe patterns over time.

**K-ESS2-1** Ask questions to obtain information about the purpose of weather forecasting to prepare for and respond to severe weather.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Portions of South Louisiana experienced significant flooding in 2016.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How did the weather during the Louisiana flood of August 2016 follow the typical patterns of Louisiana weather?
- How did it not follow typical patterns?
- How did weather forecasting help prevent damage to people during the flood?
- What questions do you still have about the weather forecasting during this major weather event?

## Unit 4 Forces and Interactions

**Description:** Students will plan and conduct investigations to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object, and analyzing data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or directions of an object with a push or a pull.

### Science Standards:

**K-PS2-1** Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.

**K-PS2-2** Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Sled dogs are used for transportation in some parts of the world.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.
- Design something that changes the speed or direction of an object’s movement.Determine your design solution works as intended.

## Unit 5 Plants and Animals

**Description:** Students apply the previous knowledge of plants and animals changing their environment. They will use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals need to survive. Students will use models to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants or animals (including humans) and the places they live.

### Science Standards:

**K-LS1-1** Structures and Processes: Use observations to describe patterns of what plants and animals (including humans) need to survive.

**K-ESS3-1** Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants or animals (including humans) and the places they live.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The flowers on sunflower plants face a different direction during different times of the day.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe the relationship between the sunflower plant and where it lives.
- Use observations to describe the patterns of the sunflower plant’s “behavior”.

## Grade 1

## Unit 1 Plants and Animals

**Description:** Students will use tools and materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.

### Science Standards:

**1-LS1-1** Use tools and materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants and/or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The necks of giraffes help them to survive.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct an explanation of how two different animals and plants use their external parts to survive.
- Use tools and materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how animals and plants use their external parts survive, grow, and meet their needs.

## Unit 2 Light and Sound

**Description:**

Light: Students will make observations to construct an evidence-based account that objects can be seen only when illuminated. They will also plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light. They will use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance. Students will link these experiences by using tools and materials to design a solution to a human problem by mimicking how plants and or animals use their external parts to help them survive, grow, and meet their needs.

Sound: Students will continue to build devices that use sound or light to communicate. They will also plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.

### Science Standards:

**1-PS4-1** Plan/conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.

**1-PS4-2** Make observations to construct an evidence-based account that objects can be seen only when illuminated.

**1-PS4-3** Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.

**1-PS4-4** Use tools and materials to design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** People use light to see things and communicate with others.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Explain that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that objects can be seen only when illuminated.
- Plan and conduct an investigation to determine the effect of placing objects made with different materials in the path of a beam of light.
- Design and build a device that uses light or sound to solve the problem of communicating over a distance.

## Unit 3 Parents and Offspring

**Description:** Students will read age-appropriate texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive, and making observations to construct an evidence-based account that young plants and animals are similar, but not exactly like, their parents.

### Science Standards:

**1-LS1-2** Read grade-appropriate texts and use media to determine patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help off spring survive.

**1-LS3-1** Make observations to construct evidence-based account that young plants and animals are similar to, but not exactly like, their parents.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Female adult kangaroos carry their offspring, which have similar characteristics to the mother kangaroo, in a front pouch.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct/describe patterns in behavior of parents and offspring that help offspring survive.
- Make observations to explain that young plants and animals are similar to, but not exactly like, their parents.

## Unit 4 Earth and Social System

**Description:** Students use observations of the sun, moon, and starts to describe patterns that can be predicting, and making observations at different times of year to relate the amount of daylight to the time of year.

### Science Standards:

**1-ESS1-1 **Use observations of the sun, moon, and stars to describe patterns that can be predicted.

**1-ESS1-2** Make observations at different times of year to relate the amount of daylight to the time of year.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The sun appears to move across the sky.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Use observations to describe patterns of the sun, moon and stars.
- Use observations to explain the amount of daylight at different times of the year.
- Construct an explanation about why the sun appears to move in the sky.
- Construct a model that shows the movement of particular objects in the sky.

## Grade 2

## Unit 1 Bodies of Water

**Description:** Students will compare the diversity of life in different habitats by making observations of plants and animals. They will also obtain and communicate information about water on Earth including where it is found, as well as its properties. Students will use the knowledge gained to develop a model representation of land and bodies of water in an area.

### Science Standards:

**2-ESS2-2** Develop a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area.

**2-ESS2-3** Obtain and communicate information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid.

**2-LS4-1** Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Many different migratory birds feed and find shelter in the Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in Louisiana, including the Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary.
- Use a model to communicate information to identify where water is found on Earth and that the water can be solid or liquid.
- Make observations of plants and animals in Barataria-Terrebonne National Estuary to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

## Unit 2 Changes in Matter

**Description:** Students will continue to identify the types and location of water on Earth. They will compare the diversity of life in different habitats by constructing arguments and using evidence to prove that some changes caused by heating and cooling can be reversed and some cannot.

### Science Standards:

**2-PS1-4** Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.

**2-ESS2-3** Obtain and communicate information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid or liquid.

**2-LS4-1** Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

### Enduring Understandings:

Unit Anchor Phenomenon: Ngga Pulu was the highest mountain of New Guinea and the highest summit of the Australia continent of. In 1936, the summit was bigger than it is today.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.
- Communicate information to identify where water is found on Earth and it can be solid or liquid.
- Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats. How are animals that live in Barataria-Terrebonne Estuary (Unit 1) different from animals that live near glaciers?

## Unit 3 Properties of Matter

**Description:** Student will plan and conduct investigations to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties. They will analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties best suited for an intended purpose. They will also make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.

### Science Standards:

**2-PS1-1** Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties.

**2-PS1-2** Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.

**2-PS1-3** Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Rondavel homes are found in South Africa, whereas igloo homes are found in Greenland.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe and classify different kinds of building materials by their observable properties.
- Analyze data to determine which materials have properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.
- Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.

## Unit 4 Our Land and Water

**Description: **Students will use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly. They will compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind or water from changing the shape of the land. They will also make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

### Science Standards:

**2-ESS1-1** Use information from several sources to provide evidence that Earth events can occur quickly or slowly.

**2-ESS2-1** Compare multiple solutions designed to slow or prevent wind and water from changing the shape of the land.

**2-ESS2-2** Develop a model to represent the shapes and kinds of land and bodies of water in an area.

**2-LS4-1** Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Grand Isle and other Louisiana barrier islands are disappearing.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe Earth events that occur very quickly and very slowly.
- How can engineering solutions slow or prevent water and wind from changing the shape of Grand Isle and Louisiana barrier islands?
- How can models help us see how wind and water are causing erosion?
- How are the habitats of organisms being impacted by Grand Isle's disappearing island?
- How are land plants and animals different from animals and plants that live in water?

## Unit 5 Relationships in Habitats

**Description: **Students will continue to compare the diversity of life in different habitats by planning and conducting investigations to determine if plants need sunlight and water to grow. They will develop simple models that mimic the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.

### Science Standards:

**2-LS2-1 ** Plan and conduct an investigation to determine if plants need sunlight and water to grow.

**2-LS2-2** Develop a simple model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.

**2-LS4-1** Make observations of plants and animals to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The Venus Flytrap digest small insects to help it survive.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop a model a model that mimics the function of an animal in dispersing seeds or pollinating plants.
- Make a claim supported with evidence that some plants need, water and grow.
- Make observations of plants to compare the diversity of life in different habitats.

## Grade 3

## Unit 1 Forces, Interactions and Variations of Traits

**Description:** Students will conduct investigations to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of objects. They will make observations/measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion. Students will also use this knowledge to construct explanations for how the variations in characteristics among individuals may provide advantages in survival.

### Science Standards:

**3-PS2-1** Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

**3-PS2-2** Make observations and/or measurements of an object's motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motions.

**3-LS4-2** Use evidence to construct an explanation for how the variations in characteristics among individuals of the same species may provide advantages in surviving, finding mates, and reproducing.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Two male deer fight.

### Essential Questions:

### Reflective Summaries:

- Construct an explanation (or narration of the video) that describes both the life science and physical science behind the deer fighting.
- Why do deer fight?
- What traits make some deer have an advantage over other deer?
- What types of forces play a role in the deer fighting?

## Unit 2 Electric and Magnetic Forces

**Description:** Students will ask questions to determine cause/effect relationships of electric/magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other. They will define simple problems that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets. Students will use this knowledge to make claims about the merit of the design solution that can reduce the impact of weather-related hazards.

### Science Standards:

**3-PS2-3** Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.

**3-PS2-4 ** Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.

**3-ESS3-1** Make a claim about the merit of a design solution that reduces the impact of a weather-related hazard.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The Empire State Building is struck by lightning approximately 23 times a year, yet it doesn’t experience any damage.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Explain cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.
- Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.
- Make a claim supported by evidence about the merit of a design solution (e.g. lightning rod) that reduces the impact of a weather-related hazard (e.g. thunderstorms).

## Unit 3 Earth’s Systems

**Description:** Students will construct and support arguments that some animals’ form groups that help members survive, support arguments that is particular habitats some organisms can survive well, survive less, or not survive at all. Students will use graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions during particular seasons, and combine information to describe climates in different world regions.

### Science Standards:

**3-LS2-1** Construct and support an argument that some animals form groups that help members survive.

**3-LS4-3** Construct and support an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

**3-ESS2-1** Represent data in tables and graphical displays to describe typical weather conditions expected during a particular season.

**3-ESS2-2** Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions around the world.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Gorillas live in groups of 20s to 30s in the Amazon Rainforest.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Use graphical displays of data to describe typical weather patterns and conditions in various biomes around the world.
- Construct and support an argument with evidence that some animals, such as gorillas, form groups that help members survive.
- Construct and support an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

### Unit 4 Inheritance and Variation of Traits

**Description: **Students will collect and combine information to describe climates around the world. Students will also use evidence to construct and support arguments stating that in different climate habitats, organisms can survive or not survive. They will apply this information and use data to provide evidence that plants/animals have traits inherited from their parents and variations of these traits exist in groups of similar organisms. Students will also use evidence to explain how these traits can be influenced by the environment.

### Science Standards:

**3-LS3-1** Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from their parents and that variation of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms.

**3-LS3-2 ** Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.

**3-LS4-3** Construct and support an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all.

**3-ESS2-2** Obtain and combine information to describe climates in different regions around the world.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **The Namid Desert can reach up to 140 degrees and is considered one of the hottest and driest places in the world. However, Namid beetles can survive in this harsh environment.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence that plants and animals have traits inherited from their parents and that variations of these traits exists in a group of similar organisms.
- Use evidence to support the explanation that traits can be influenced by the environment.
- Use graphical displays of data to describe typical weather patterns and conditions in various biomes around the world.
- How are weather patterns and conditions in the Amazon Rainforest different from the Namib Desert?
- Construct and support an argument with evidence that in a particular habitat some organisms can survive well, some survive less well, and some cannot survive at all. How are Namib beetles or other organisms suited to survive in a desert?

### Unit 5 Fossils

**Description:** Students will develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, and death. They will interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago. Students will also make claims about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.

### Science Standards:

**3-LS1-1** Develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction, and death.

**3-LS4-1 ** Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.

**3-LS4-4** Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Fully grown Sequoia trees can survive the hottest wildfires in Yosemite National Park.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop models to describe that organisms have unique and diverse life cycles but all have in common birth, growth, reproduction, and death.
- Analyze and interpret data from fossils to provide evidence of the organisms and the environments in which they lived long ago.
- Make a claim about the merit of a solution to a problem caused when the environment changes and the types of plants and animals that live there may change.

## Grade 4

## Unit 1 Weathering and Erosion

**Description:** Students will conduct investigations on the effects of water, ice, wind, and vegetation on the relative rate of weathering and erosion. By analyzing data from maps, students will describe the patterns of Earth’s features. Students will make predictions as to why and how living things affect the physical characteristics of their environment. Evidence will be collected to generate multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans. Students will also develop wave models to describe patterns in terms of amplitude, wavelength, and how waves can cause objects to move.

### Science Standards:

**4-ESS2-1** Plan and conduct investigations on the effects of water, ice, wind, and vegetation on the relative rate of weathering and erosion.

**4-ESS2-2** Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe the patterns of Earth's features.

**4-ESS2-3** Ask questions that can be investigated and predict reasonable outcomes about how living things affect the physical characteristics of their environment.

**4-ESS3-2 **Generate and compare multiple solutions to reduce the impacts of natural Earth processes on humans.

**4-PS4-1** Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and to show that waves can cause objects to move.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Louisiana loses about 75 square kilometers of land annually.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe the impact of living and nonliving things on Louisiana's coastline.
- Generate two different solutions to Louisiana's disappearing coastline and determine the strengths and weaknesses of both proposals.

## Unit 2 Earth’s Processes

**Description:** Students will identify the evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for the changes in landforms over time. Students will continue to interpret data from maps to describe the patterns of Earth’s features.

### Science Standards:

**4-ESS1-1** Identify evidence from patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers to support an explanation for changes in landforms over time.

**4-ESS2-2** Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe the patterns of Earth's features.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Fossils of dire wolves, saber tooth cats, and wooly mammoths are among the 3.5 million fossils found in Los Angeles, California.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Explain how the patterns in rock formations and fossils in rock layers from La Brea Tar pits to explain changes in land forms over time.
- Analyze and interpret data from maps to describe patterns in Earth’s features along the San Andreas Fault line.

## Unit 3 Structure and Processes of Organisms

**Description:** Students will examine how light reflects from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen. An argument will be constructed to explain how plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction. Students will provide explanations to describe how animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brains, and respond to the information in different ways.

### Science Standards:

**4-PS4-2** Develop a model to describe how light reflecting from objects and entering the eye allows objects to be seen.

**4-LS1-1** Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.

**4-LS1-2** Construct an explanation to describe how animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brains, and respond to the information in different ways.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Bald eagles can see fish in the water from several hundred feet above, while soaring and circling in the air. However, fishermen have a difficult time seeing fish beneath the surface of the water.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop a model depicting how an eagle sees.
- Construct an argument that bald eagles have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
- Explain how bald eagles process and respond to information.

## Unit 4 Energy

**Description:** Students will explain the relationship between the speed of an object to the energy of that object. Outcomes will be predicted about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.

### Science Standards:

**4-PS3-1** Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

**4-PS3-3** Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Arizona has a crater that is over one mile across and more than 550 feet.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Use evidence to construct an explanation about how the speed of the meteorite impacted the size of the Barringer Crater.
- Design an investigation to predict the outcome regarding the transfer of energy that occurs when a meteorite collides with Earth’s surface.

## Unit 5 Earth and Human Activity

**Description: **Students will provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents. Scientific ideas will be applied to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another. Students will combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from renewable and non-renewable resources and their effect on the environment.

Science Standards:

**4-PS3-2** Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.

**4-PS3-4** Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.

**4-ESS3-1** Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from renewable and non-renewable resources and how their uses affect the environment.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Developing countries now have more cell phone users than the world’s richest countries.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe how energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents.
- Design a device that converts energy from one form to another.
- Describe how renewable and non-renewable energy resources are different and their effect on India’s environment.

## Unit 6 Waves and Communication

**Description:** Students will expand on the descriptions of wave patterns from Unit 1 in terms of amplitude, wavelength, and how waves can cause objects to move. The argument constructed in Unit 3 will be used to further explain how plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction. Students will continue to provide explanations that describe how animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brains, and respond to the information in different ways.

### Science Standards:

**4-PS4-1 ** Develop a model of waves to describe patterns in terms of amplitude and wavelength and to show that waves can cause objects to move.

**4-LS1-1** Construct an argument that plants and animals have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.

**4-LS1-2 ** Construct an explanation to describe how animals receive different types of information through their senses, process the information in their brains, and respond to the information in different ways.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Birds can see in UV.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model to explain how bats communicate with one another. Explain how other animals use communication similar to bats to prey on them.
- Construct an argument with supporting evidence that animals and plants have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
- Compare how bats receive and process information.
- Compare how birds use UV to receive and process information.
- Create a model to explain how bats, birds, or other animals communicate with one another.
- Construct an argument with supporting evidence that animals and plants have internal and external structures that function to support survival, growth, behavior, and reproduction.
- Conduct an investigation to collect observations and measurements that prove heat can be transferred from place to place.
- What do these concepts have in common?
- Birds can see in UV.
- Male and female birds have different color plumage.
- Different birds sing different songs.

## Grade 5

Unit 1 Matter and Its Interactions

**Description: **Students will describe that matter is made of particles that are too small to be seen. The evidence collected from measuring and graphing quantities will prove that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved. Students will observe and measure materials based on their properties in order to identify them. An investigation will be conducted to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.

### Science Standards:

**5-PS1-1 ** Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles that are too small to be seen.

**5-PS1-2 ** Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.

**5-PS1-3** Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.

**5-PS1-4** Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** A sugar refinery experienced a series of violent explosions due to sugar dust particles in the air.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How did sugar dust particles travel through the Imperial Sugar Refinery?
- How did the particles of matter contribute to the explosion?
- How did the properties of sugar change after the explosion took place?
- Would the outcome of the explosion been different if sugar dust didn't travel through the air? Use evidence from the unit to support your response.

## Unit 2 Matter and Energy

**Description: **Students will describe that matter is made of particles that are too small to be seen. Students will also explore how air and water affect the growth of plants.

### Science Standards:

**5-PS1-1** Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles that are too small to be seen.

**5-LS1-1** Structures and Processes: Ask questions about how air and water affect the growth of plants.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Astronauts are able to grow plants in space without soil.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.
- Use a model to explain that matter is transported into, out of and within systems.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that plant matter comes mostly from air and water, not from the soil.

## Unit 3 Ecosystems

**Description:** Students will describe that the energy found in animals’ food for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth was once energy from the sun. The movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers and the environment will also be explored.

### Science Standards:

**5-PS3-1** Use models to describe that energy in animals’ food (used for body repair, growth, motion, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun.

**5-LS2-1 ** Develop a model to describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, decomposers, and the environment.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The chemical content of bears’ hair reveals their eating habits.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model and use evidence from your model to:
- Describe the movement of matter among plants, animals, and the environment.
- Explain how the food sources of grizzly bears can be traced back to plants.
- Describe that energy in animals’ food (used from body repair, growth, and to maintain body warmth) was once energy from the sun.

## Unit 4 Earth’s Systems

**Description:** Students will describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. The evidence collected from graphing the amounts of water in various reservoirs will reveal information about the distribution of water. Students will also explore the ways that individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment

### Science Standards:

**5-ESS2-1** Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact.

**5-ESS2-2** Describe and graph the amounts of salt water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.

**5-ESS3-1** Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth’s resources and environment.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **The reduction of native plants in Hawaii’s native forest, such as the Kamakahala, have caused Hawaii to lose half of its fresh water.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop a model to describe the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere.
- Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.
- Explain ways communities can use science to protect Earth’s water resources/environment.

## Unit 5 Earth’s Place in the Universe

**Description:** Students will support an argument that the apparent brightness of the sun and stars is due to their relative distances from the Earth. Also, students will explain the patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky. Students will also explain that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.

### Science Standards:

**5-ESS1-1 **Support an argument that the apparent brightness of the sun and stars is due to their relative distances from the Earth.

**5-ESS1-2** Represent data in graphical displays to reveal patterns of daily changes in length and direction of shadows, day and night, and the seasonal appearance of some stars in the night sky.

**5-PS2-1** Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Dung Beetles can navigate using the starry sky and the glow of the Milky Way Galaxy.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Make a claim supported by evidence that the differences in the brightness of the sun compared to other stars is due to their relative distance from the Earth. How does the brightness of stars help dung beetles navigate?
- Explain how patterns of day and night and seasonal appearance of stars impact dung beetles.
- Construct an argument supported by evidence that the gravitational force exerted by the Earth is directed down.

## Grade 6

## Unit 1 Earth’s Place in the Universe

**Description:** This unit focuses on using models of the Sun-Earth-Moon system to describe patterns of lunar phases and eclipses of sun, moon, and seasons. Students will also use models to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system, as well as use data to determine the scale properties of objects in the solar system.

### Science Standards:

**6-MS-ESS1-1** Develop and use a model of the Earth-sun-moon system to describe the recurring patterns of lunar phases, eclipses of the sun and moon, and seasons.

**6-MS-ESS1-2** Use a model to describe the role of gravity in the motions within galaxies and the solar system.

**6-MS-ESS1-3** Analyze and interpret data to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Earth is in the exact position in space to support life, including human life.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop a model of the Earth-Sun-Moon system illustrating at least two recurring patterns and address the accuracy of size and distance (scale), including scale limitations.
- How does gravity impact the motions within galaxies and our solar system?
- How can data be used to determine scale properties of objects in the solar system?
- How does the position of Earth in space and the pattern of Earth’s movement in space allow it to support the diversity of life that exists?

## Unit 2 Energy

**Description:** During this unit, students will provide evidence that a change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces and the mass of the object. They will also construct and interpret graphical displays of data in order to describe the relationships between kinetic energy to the mass and the speed of an object. Students will also develop models to describe situations where the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes because of the different amounts of potential energy stored in the system.

### Science Standards:

**6-MS-PS2-2** Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

**6-MS-PS3-1** Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationship of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.

**6-MS-PS3-2** Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** A relatively small catapult can bring down a castle.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How does the design of a catapult impact its ability to launch a projectile?
- How does a catapult transfer potential energy to kinetic energy to launch a projectile?
- What is the relationship between kinetic energy and potential energy?
- What factors will affect the amount of potential and kinetic energy within a closed system?
- How is a projectile’s kinetic energy related to the mass of the object that it’s launching?
- Design a catapult that launches the farthest and with the greatest accuracy.

### Unit 3 Forces & Interactions

**Description:** Students will continue their progress of interpreting graphs based on kinetic energy relationships by connecting this learning to the concept of Newton’s Third Law of Motion. Students will also provide evidence that a change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces and the mass of the object.

### Science Standards:

**6-MS-PS2-1** Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

**6-MS-PS2-2** Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

**6-MS-PS3-1** Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to mass of an object and to the speed of an object.

**6-MS-PS3-2** Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting as a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Woodpeckers bang their heads against trees and don’t get concussions. 60% of NFL football players have had at least one concussion colliding with other players.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop and use a model to describe the relationship of kinetic energy to the mass and the speed of football players.
- Describe how the change in a football player’s motion depends on the mass and the sum of the forces acting on the player.
- Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to overcome the problem of concussions in football games.

Unit 4 Electric, Magnetic, and Gravitational Forces

**Description: **Students will continue their progress of interpreting graphs based on kinetic energy relationships. They will then connect their previous learning to new learning of Newton’s Third Law of Motion. Students will also provide evidence that a change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces and mass of the object.

### Science Standards:

**6-MS-PS2-3** Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

**6-MS-PS2-4 **Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

**6-MS-PS2-5** Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Cow and deer herds tend to point their bodies in a north-south line.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Make and support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.
- Plan and conduct an experiment to provide evidence that fields exist between cow and deer herds and that they exert forces on the herds even though they are not in contact with them.
- What factors affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces acting on cow and deer herds?

Unit 5 Molecules to Organisms

**Description:** Students will describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures and provide evidence that living things are made of cells. Students will also describe the function of cells and describe the cycle of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems.

### Science Standards:

**6-MS-PS1-1** Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

**6-MS-LS1-1** Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells, either one or many different numbers and types.

**6-MS-LS1-2 **Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.

**6-MS-LS2-3** Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The Yellow Sea is turning green in China.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- What impacts do algal blooms have on the ecosystems in China and other areas?
- What role do phytoplankton play in the Yellow Sea turning green?
- How do the cellular structures and functions allow algal blooms to grow?
- How have humans altered environments in such a way that growth of algal blooms occurs?
- What solutions may impact the overgrowth of algal blooms?

Unit 6 Interdependent Relationships

**Description:** Students will describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures and provide evidence that living things are made of cells. Students will also describe the function of cells and describe the cycle of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems.

### Science Standards:

**6-MS-LS2-1** Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in the ecosystem.

**6-MS-LS2-2** Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.

**6-MS-ESS3-4** Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population/per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The Great Barrier Reef is turning white.

Essential Questions:

Reflective Summaries:

How does coral bleaching impact the availability of resources and populations of organisms living within the Great Barrier Reef?

Construct an explanation supported by evidence that the patterns of interactions among organisms in the Great Barrier Reef are impacted by coral bleaching.

Construct an argument with evidence that human population and their per-capita consumption of natural resources are impacting Earth’s systems and contributing to coral bleaching.

Unit 7 Sound

Description: Students will use mathematical representations to describe simple models for waves and use models to describe wave behaviors (ex: refractions, reflection, absorption, transmission).

Science Standards:

6-MS-PS4-1 Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.

6-MS-PS4-2 Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials.

Enduring Understandings:

Unit Anchor Phenomenon: We can sense many different sounds from a distance.

Essential Questions:

Reflective Summaries:

Describe a simple model for sound waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave and how the frequency and wavelength change the expression of the wave.

Develop and use a model to describe that sound waves are refracted, reflected, absorbed, transmitted, or scattered through various materials.

## Grade 7

## Unit 1 Structure and Properties of Matter

**Description: **Students will focus on the properties of substances and the criteria used to determine if a reaction has occurred. They will also develop models that predict or describe changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of matter when thermal energy is changed. Students will also plan investigations to determine relationships among energy transfer and/or changes in kinetic energy.

### Science Standards:

**7-MS-PS1-2 **Analyze and interpret data on properties of substances before and after substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

**7-MS-PS1-4** Develop and use a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and the state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

**7-MS-PS3-4** Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Brinicles encase aquatic organisms with a tube of ice.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop a model that describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and the state of pure substances when brinicles form and thermal energy is added and removed.
- Develop a model that describes the relationship among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of particles in an ecosystem that has a brinicle.

## Unit 2 Chemical Reactions

**Description:** Students will continue to build depth of knowledge on properties of substances, and apply this understanding to using models that describe conservation of matter in chemical reactions. Students will also construct scientific explanations of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and energy into and out of organisms.

### Science Standards:

**7-MS-PS1-2** Analyze and interpret data on properties of substances before and after substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

**7-MS-PS1-4 **Develop and use a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and the state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

**7-MS-PS1-5** Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.

**7-MS-LS1-6** Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Corpse flowers are the world’s largest flowers and can reach approximately 10 to 15 feet in height. When the flowers bloom, they emit an odor that is similar to rotting meat or a decaying corpse.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe how substances change before and after substances are mixed together.
- Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
- Develop a model that describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and the state of a pure substance when thermal energy is produced by a corpse plant. How does this impact pollinators’ ability to be attracted to this plant?
- Develop a model to describe how the total number of atoms are conserved during the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
- Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of matter and flow of energy into and out of organisms.

Unit 3 Human Body

**Description: **Students will carry their knowledge of energy transfer to using arguments for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells, and develop models describing how food is rearranged through chemical reactions to support growth/release energy.

### Science Standards:

**7-MS-LS1-3** Analyze and interpret data on properties of substances before and after substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.

**7-MS-LS1-7** Develop and use a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and the state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Endurance Olympic athletes like Michael Phelps practice carbohydrate loading when training for the Olympics.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.
- Make a claim supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
- Develop a model to describe how carbohydrates are rearranged through chemical reactions forming new molecules that release energy as this matter moves through an organism.

## Unit 4 Genetics and the Inheritance of Traits

**Description:** Students will examine key ideas focused on using models to describe why asexual reproduction results with identical offspring whereas sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. Students will also construct explanations describing how genetic variations of traits in populations increase some individual’s probability of survival, and synthesize information about technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

### Science Standards:

**7-MS-LS3-2** Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.

**7-MS-LS4-4** Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

**7-MS-LS4-5** Gather, read, and synthesize information about technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Four out of seven children in the Fugate family have blue skin and fingernails.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model to describe the differences between the genetic variations that occur during asexual and sexual reproduction.
- Create a model that explains why 4 out of 7 children in the Fugate family have blue skin and fingernails.
- Construct an explanation supported by evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population help some organisms survive and reproduce in their environment.
- Describe how technologies have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

## Unit 5 Biodiversity and Change

**Description:** Students will undertake a design project that assists in maintaining diversity in ecosystems, and construct arguments supported by evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. Students will also ask questions to clarify evidence of factors that have caused rising global temperatures over the past century.

### Science Standards:

**7-MS-ESS3-5** Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.

**7-MS-LS2-4** Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

**7-MS-LS2-5** Undertake a design project that assists in maintaining diversity and ecosystem services.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Forty-three percent of Atlantic forest birds are close to extinction.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of the Amazon Rainforest affect Atlantic Bird populations.
- Describe factors that have contributed to the rise in global temperatures over the past century.
- Design a solution to assist in maintaining the diversity and ecosystem services of the Amazon Rainforest.

##

Unit 6 Weather

**Description:** Students will use models to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and gravity. Students will also collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses result in weather atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

### Science Standards:

**7-MS-ESS2-4** Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.

**7-MS-ESS2-5** Collect data to provide evidence for how the motions and complex interactions of air masses results in changes in weather conditions.

**7-MS-ESS2-6** Develop and use a model to describe how unequal heating and rotation of the Earth causes patterns of atmospheric and oceanic circulation that determine regional climates.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Seventy-five percent of all tornadoes on Earth occur in North America. Some states are more prone to tornadoes than others.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model to show how water continually cycles through Earth’s system.
- Describe the cause and effect relationship between the transfer of energy from the sun and the rate of evaporation.
- Create a model to show how the unequal heating and rotation of the Earth causes changes in atmospheric and oceanic patterns. Explain how these patterns create weather conditions such as tornadoes.
- Explain how gravity interacts with water in different phases to drive water cycling through Earth’s atmosphere.

## Grade 8

Unit 1 Earth’s Processes

**Description**: Students will develop models to describe cycling of Earth’s materials and flow of energy that drives this process and construct explanations for how geoscience processes have changed Earth’s surface at various scales. Students will also analyze and interpret data on distribution of fossils, rocks, continental shapes and/or seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions, and relate this knowledge to develop models that describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

### Science Standards:

**8-MS-ESS2-1** Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth’s materials and the flow of energy that drives this process.

**8-MS-ESS2-2** Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.

**8-MS-ESS2-3** Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions.

**8-MS-PS1-1** Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The supercontinent Pangea, existed approximately 335 million years ago; it eventually separated into different continents.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How did Earth’s processes cause Pangaea to break apart?
- How did the movement of energy and matter through Earth’s surface impact the breakup of Pangaea?
- Develop a model showing the changing Earth from the time of Pangaea to current time.
- Write a scientific explanation including data and the interpretation of that data that supports the changing of Earth’s surface over time.

## Unit 2 Natural Hazards

**Description:** Students will continue to apply their knowledge of atomic composition of molecules to construct scientific explanations for how the uneven distributions of Earth’s mineral, energy and/or groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes. Students will also use natural disaster data to forecast future catastrophic events and how to mitigate their effects.

### Science Standards:

**8-MS-ESS3-1** Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth's mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.

**8-MS-ESS3-2** Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales.

**8-MS-PS1-1** Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Lava from the Kawah Ijen volcano appears blue at times.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How are Earth’s resources and/or minerals impacted by geoscience processes such as volcanoes?
- Explain how scientists use data to predict the future catastrophic events such as volcanoes?
- Develop a model to describe the atomic composition of sulfur and other simple molecules and extended structures.

Unit 3 Biological Evolution

**Description:** Students will construct explanations on how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth’s geologic history, interpreting patterns in fossil records that document existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout Earth’s history. Students will also construct explanations for similarities and differences among modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

### Science Standards:

**8-MS-ESS1-4** Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata how geologic time scale is used to organize Earth’s geologic history.

**8-MS-LS4-1** Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.

**8-MS-LS4-2** Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Archosaurs, sauropods, and tyrannosaurs were anatomically different from organisms today.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct explanations for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and fossil organisms that lived during Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods.
- Explain how patterns in the fossil record are used to document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change in life forms during the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods?
- How do life forms in the Cenozoic era compare to life forms in the Mesozoic Era?

## Unit 4 Embryological Similarities

**Description:** Students will continue to construct explanations for similarities and differences among modern and fossil organisms, and compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships.

### Science Standards:

**8-MS-LS4-2** Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

**8-MS-LS4-3** Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Chickens and cows have embryological similarities; yet, they are two different organisms.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development of cows and chickens to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.
- Construct an explanation for the embryological similarities and differences among organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

## Unit 5 Genetics & Traits

**Description:** Students will use reasoning for animal behaviors and plant structures to affect the probability of survival and construct explanations for how environmental and genetic factors influence growth of organisms. They will also use models to describe structural changes that may result in harmful and beneficial effects of organisms and explain how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases on specific traits in populations over time. Students will end the unit by designing methods for monitoring and minimizing human impacts on the environment.

### Science Standards:

**8-MS-LS1-4** Construct and use argument(s) based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of survival and successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively.

**8-MS-LS1-5** Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.

**8-MS-LS3-1** Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms.

**8-MS-LS4-6** Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations of species over time.

**8-MS-ESS3-3** Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing human impact on the environment.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Charles Darwin’s Finches on Galapagos Island were identical to mainland finches but had different beaks.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct an argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of survival and successful reproduction of animals and plants on Galapagos Islands.
- Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of finches on Galapagos Islands.
- Describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the finches on Galapagos Islands.
- Describe how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations of finches on Galapagos Island over time.
- Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing human impact on Galapagos Islands.

## Unit 6 Energy & Matter

**Description:** Students will use models to describe the atomic composition of molecules and describe how synthetic materials come from natural resources. Students will also undertake a design project focused that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes, and a device that minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.

### Science Standards:

**8-MS-PS1-3** Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.

**8-MS-PS1-6** Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.

**8-MS-PS3-3** Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.

**8-MS-PS3-5** Construct, use, and present arguments to support the claim that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** In 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake caused catastrophic damage. Despite the massive devastation, people in one small area continued to receive power.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.
- Design a project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
- Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that when the kinetic energy of an object changes, energy is transferred to or from the object.

## Physics

## Unit 1 Newton’s 2nd Law and Momentum of Colliding Forces

**Description:**

Students will analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net on a macroscopic object, its mass, and acceleration. Students will also use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is not net force on the system. Students will then apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS2-1** Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

**HS-PS2-2** Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

**HS-PS2-3** Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Faster NHL Skater Challenge: Each year skaters challenge to see who can skate the fastest time around the ring. In 2018, that time was 13.454 sec. The record was set in 2016 with a time of 13.172 sec.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How is data used to support claims that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration?
- Use mathematical representations to support claims the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
- How can you apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision?

## Unit 2 Motion and Stability

**Description:**

Students will use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. They will also plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. Students will develop and use models of two objects interacting through electric and magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to this interaction.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS2-1** Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

**HS-PS2-2** Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

**HS-PS2-3** Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Faster NHL Skater Challenge: Each year skaters challenge to see who can skate the fastest time around the ring. In 2018, that time was 13.454 sec. The record was set in 2016 with a time of 13.172 sec.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How is data used to support claims that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration?
- Use mathematical representations to support claims the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
- How can you apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision?

Unit 3 Energy

**Description:**

Students will create models to calculate the change in one component in a system when the change in energy of the other components and energy flows in and out of the system are known. They will also develop models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions and relative position of particles and/or objects. Then students will design and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Students will conclude by planning and conducting an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS3-1** Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other components and energy flows in and out of the system are known.

**HS-PS3-2** Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles and/or objects and energy associated with the relative positions of particles and/or objects.

**HS-PS3-3** Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

**HS-PS3-4** Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Wind turbines convert wind energy to electrical energy.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How can computational models be used to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other components are known?
- How can computational models be used to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the energy flows in and out of the system are known?
- Use and/or apply models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles and/or objects.
- Use and/or apply models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the energy associated with the relative positions of particles and/or objects.
- Describe and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.
- Predict and/or describe the outcomes when the transfer of thermal energy of two components of different temperatures are combined within a closed system.

Unit 4 Wave Applications

**Description:**

Students will use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding the relationships among the frequency, wavelength and speed of waves traveling in various mediums. Students will also evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave or particle models and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS4-1** Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding the relationships among frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.

**HS-PS4-3** Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Gamma radiation can travel through walls yet light waves cannot.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Apply mathematical representations to support a claim regarding the relationships among frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
- Describe the reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be represented by a wave model or a particle model.
- In certain situations, why are some models of electromagnetic radiation more useful than the others?

## Chemistry

## Unit 1 Nuclear Processes

**Description:**

Students will use the periodic table to predict the relative properties of elements based on valence electrons and composition of nucleus. Students will apply this knowledge to illustrate the composition of the nucleus and the energy released during fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. Students will also evaluate claims in published materials about the viability of nuclear power as a source of alternative energy relative to other forms of energy (fossil fuels, wind, solar, geothermal).

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS1-1** Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level and the composition of the nucleus of atoms.

**HS-PS1-8 **Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

**HS-PS6-6** Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials about the viability of nuclear power as a source of alternative energy relative to other forms of energy (e.g., fossil fuels, wind, solar, geothermal).

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Japanese people living in the area where the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster took place have a higher risk of developing cancer.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How are fission and fusion reactions different?
- What role do fission and fusion reactions play in powering nuclear power plants?
- Over the past 300 years, how have discoveries related to atomic structure affected life on our planet?
- How do economic, environmental, social and political factors affect the development and emergence of new nuclear technologies?
- How is nuclear energy regulated in the United States?
- What is the role of a reactor in a nuclear power plant?
- Make a claim supporting or refuting the use of nuclear energy in the United States or Louisiana. Use evidence to support your response.

## Unit 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table

**Description:**

Students will continue to use the periodic table to predict relative properties of elements (reactivity, bond type, bond number, and reaction with oxygen) based on valence electrons and composition of nucleus. They will also gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the macroscale (melting and boiling point, vapor pressure) to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. Students will also communicate information about why the atomic, subatomic and/or molecular level structure is important in the function of designed materials.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS1-1** Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level and the composition of the nucleus of atoms.

**HS-PS1-3** Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the macroscale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles.

**HS-PS2-6** Communicate scientific and technical information about why the atomic-level, subatomic-level, and/or molecular level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

The existence and properties of Technetium were accurately predicted 70 years before it was discovered.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Predict the properties of an element from the Periodic Table given the properties of other elements in its group and period.
- Design an experiment to determine the microscale configuration of a material by examining its macroscale properties.
- Create a brochure or informational advertising a specific element or molecule to a scientific audience. Choose a specific purpose to advertise and communicate why that element/molecule would be best suited to your application.

Unit 3 Chemical Reactions

**Description:**

Students will construct and revise explanations for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the valence electron, periodic table trends, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. They will also illustrate the release and absorption of energy from a chemical reactions system depending upon the changes in total bond energy. Students will use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS1-2** Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

**HS-PS1-4** Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy.

**HS-PS1-7 **Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

MREs (Meals Ready to Eat) provide hot meals in areas with no cooking infrastructure using military grade Flameless Ration Heaters.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Predict the outcome of a simple chemical reaction and explain your answer using evidence from the Periodic Table of Elements.
- Given a chemical equation, illustrate the bond energy of the products and reactants as well as any energy released or absorbed.
- Explain how the principle of conservation of mass leads to the necessity of balancing chemical equations.

Unit 4 Optimizing Chemical Reactions

**Description:**

Students will apply evidence of scientific principles to provide explanations about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. Students will also refine a chemical system design by specifying a change in conditions that produces increased amounts of products at equilibrium (Le Chatelier’s Principle).

Science Standards:

**HS-PS1-5 **Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.

**HS-PS1-6** Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Different methods of preservation may or may not keep avocados from turning brown.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Explain the factors that can increase the rate of an observed chemical reaction.
- Design a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

Unit 5 Energy

**Description:**

Students will create computational models to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. They will also conduct investigations to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperatures are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components of a system (2nd Law of Thermodynamics). Students will also design, build, and refine a device (ex: hot and/or cold packs and batteries) that works within given constraints (ex: renewable energy forms) to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS1-5** Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs.

**HS-PS1-6** Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Heat from Earth’s natural geologic processes can be used to make electricity.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known.
- Design an experiment to verify that objects of different temperatures, when placed together, move towards a more uniform temperature distribution.
- Refine the design of a simple system that converts energy from one form to another.

## Environmental Science

## Unit 1 Environmental Systems

**Description:**

Students will make claims that a change to Earth’s surface can cause other system changes and explore how system flow and energy variations result in changes in atmosphere and climate. They will also refine solutions to reduce human impact and illustrate relationships among systems. Students will also develop models to describe the cycling of carbon among the geospheres.

### Science Standards:

**HS-ESS2-2 **Analyze geoscience data to make a claim that a change to Earth's surface can create feedback that causes changes to other Earth's systems.

**HS-ESS2-4 **Analyze and interpret data to explore how variations in flow of energy into/out of Earth’s systems result in changes in atmosphere and climate.

**HS-ESS3-4** Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.

**HS-ESS3-6** Use a computational representation to illustrate relationships among Earth systems and how those relationships are being modified due to human activity.

**HS-ESS2-6** Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

A mass of glacier ice suddenly breaks away from a glacier and causes sea levels to rise. This phenomenon is known as ice calving.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- How do human activities and an increase in Earth’s global temperature contribute to the ice calving phenomenon? Provide evidence to support your claim.
- How does ice calving impact Earth’s systems, weather, and atmospheric changes? Provide evidence to support your claim.
- How does ice calving and an increase in Earth’s global temperatures impact organisms? Provide evidence to support your claim.
- How do human activities impact the cycling of carbon within Earth’s biogeochemical cycles? Provide evidence to support your claim.
- How do scientists and/or engineers identify and develop technological solutions to identify and solve the impact of human activities on natural systems? Provide evidence to support your claim.

Unit 2 Environmental Awareness & Protection

**Description:**

Students will continue to make claims that a change to Earth’s surface can cause changes to other systems and refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activity. Students will apply this knowledge to evaluate a solution to limit waterway non-point source pollution introduction, and predict the effects that pollution has on population density.

### Science Standards:

**HS-ESS2-2** Analyze geoscience data to make a claim that a change to Earth's surface can create feedback that causes changes to other Earth's systems.

**HS-ESS3-4 **Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.

**HS-EVS2-1** Design and evaluate a solution to limit introduction of non-point source pollution into state waterways.

**HS-EVS2-2** Develop a quantitative model to describe the cycling of carbon among the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

The largest Gulf of Mexico dead zone measured 22,720 square kilometers on July 24-30, 2017.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Make a claim supported by evidence that eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico creates feedback that causes changes to its ecosystem.
- Describe how farming and other human activities contribute to the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone.
- Create a model and use mathematics and computational data to explain that hypoxic conditions impact aquatic organisms in the Gulf of Mexico.
- Design a solution to limit the impact of eutrophication in the Gulf of Mexico.

Unit 3 Ecosystems

**Description:**

Students will use representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity and biodiversity in populations of ecosystems and support claims for the cycling of matter and energy among organisms in ecosystems. They will also evaluate claims that complex interactions in ecosystems maintain consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. Students will also refine a solution for reducing human activity impacts on the environment and biodiversity.

## Science Standards:

**HS-LS2-1 **Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity, biodiversity and populations of ecosystems at different scales.

**HS-LS2-4 **Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

**HS-LS2-6** Evaluate the claims, evidence and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

**HS-LS2-7** Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

Wolves were absent from Yellowstone National Park for approximately 70 years. In 1995, wolves were reintroduced to the park and as result, the behaviors of rivers changed.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Use mathematics and computational data to describe how the removal of wolves from Yellowstone National Park impacted the cycling of matter and flow of energy in the park.
- Use mathematical and computational representations to explain how the removal of wolves from Yellowstone National Park impacted its carrying capacity, biodiversity and populations.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that the complex interactions in Yellowstone National Park maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions.
- Communicate information supported by evidence that geographical changes in Yellowstone National Park affected its ecosystem.
- Evaluate and/or refine the Endangered Species Act to reduce the impact of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

## Unit 4 Resources and Resource Management

**Description:**

Students will interpret how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in atmosphere and climate and identify factors that affect sustainable development of natural resources in Louisiana. They will also interpret data about the consequences of environmental decisions to determine the risk-benefit of environmental actions and/or practices. Students will also construct arguments addressing the negative impacts of introduced organisms that have one native species.

### Science Standards:

**HS-ESS2-5** Plan and conduct an investigation on the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes.

**HS-EVS1-1** Analyze and interpret data to identify the factors that affect sustainable development and natural resource management in Louisiana.

**HS-EVS1-3** Analyze and interpret data about the consequences of environmental decisions to determine the risk-benefit values of actions and practices implemented for selected issues.

**HS-EVS2-3** Use multiple lines of evidence to construct an argument addressing the negative impacts that introduced organisms have on Louisiana's native species.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

For approximately 100 million years, sediment deposition to the Mississippi River gradually increased the size of the Mississippi River Delta. However, over the past few decades, the Mississippi River Delta has greatly decreased.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Describe the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes.
- Describe the consequences of building levees and hydrological modifications on the Mississippi River Delta and Louisiana.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that invasive species are impacting Louisiana wetlands and native species.
- Explain how the Mississippi River Delta and/or Louisiana wetlands supply ecosystem capital. Identify factors that affect its sustainable development and natural resource management and solutions to overcome them.

## Unit 5 Succession

**Description:**

Students will continue to evaluate the claims, evidence and reasoning that complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. Then they will apply this knowledge to construct explanations for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.

### Science Standards:

**HS-ESS3-1** Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity.

**HS-LS2-6** Evaluate the claims, evidence and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

For approximately 100 million years, sediment deposition to the Mississippi River gradually increased the size of the Mississippi River Delta. However, over the past few decades, the Mississippi River Delta has greatly decreased.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the occurrence of natural hazards, changes in climate, and availability of resources drive human activity.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that the complex interactions in Mount Saint Helen ecosystem maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing those conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

## Unit 6 Human Impact and Sustainability

**Description:**

Students will communicate information on the effectiveness of management or conservation practices for one of Louisiana’s natural resources with respect to common considerations such as social, economic, technological, and influencing political factors over the last 50 years. They will also evaluate arguments about the positive and negative consequences of using disposable resources vs. reusable resources and evaluate design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios. Students will also illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity.

### Science Standards:

**HS-EVS1-2** Obtain, evaluate and communicate information on the effectiveness of management or conservation practices for one of Louisiana’s natural resources with respect to common considerations such as social, economic, technological, and influencing political factors over the past 50 years.

**HS-EVS3-1** Construct and evaluate arguments about the positive and negative consequences of using disposable resources versus reusable resources.

**HS-ESS3-2** Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on cost-benefit ratios.

**HS-ESS3-3** Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill disrupted the cellular function of killifish.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Communicate information on the effectiveness of management or conservation practices for oil and gas production in Louisiana with respect to common considerations such as social, economic, technological, and influencing political factors over the past 50 years.
- Construct arguments about the positive and negative consequences of using disposable resources versus reusable resources in Louisiana.
- Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources in Louisiana based on cost-benefit ratios.
- Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity in Louisiana.

## Biology

## Unit 1 Evolution

**Description:
Bend 1:** Students will initially investigate a case of a young girl with a life-threatening infection of pan-resistant bacteria. This case sparks questions that lead students to investigate the growing prevalence of such cases and discrepancies between antibiotic use in the community and CDC recommendations.

**Bend 2:**Students will also expand their investigations to look at population changes occurring in a population of junco birds which exhibit noticeable differences in physical and behavioral traits over the past 60 years.

### Science Standards:

**HS-LS4-1** Analyze and interpret scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.

**HS-LS4-2 **Construct an explanation based on evidence that biological diversity is influenced by (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.

**HS-LS4-3** Apply concepts of statistics/probability to support explanations that populations of organisms adapt when an advantageous heritable trait increases in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.

**HS-LS4-4** Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection and other mechanisms lead to genetic changes in populations.

**HS-LS4-5** Evaluate evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions can affect the distribution of traits in a population causing: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.

**HS-LS1-8** Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about (1) viral and bacterial reproduction and adaptation, (2) the body’s primary defenses against infection, and (3) how these features impact the design of effective treatment.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:
Bend 1:** A little girl goes to a hospital with a bacterial infection. After several weeks of antibiotic treatment, she developed a life-threatening pan-resistant bacterial infection.

**Bend 2:**UCSD juncos have different behaviors and physical traits than juncos who live in a nearby mountain range.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:
Bend 1:**

- Describe the differences between viral and bacterial reproduction and adaptation and the body’s primary defenses against these infections. How have these features impacted the design of effective treatments from viral and bacterial infections?

**Bend 1 & 2:**

- Explain common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence.
- Construct an explanation based on evidence that biological diversity is influenced by (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment.
- Describe that populations of organisms adapt when an advantageous heritable trait increases in proportion to organisms lacking this trait.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that natural selection and other mechanisms lead to genetic changes in populations.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that changes in environmental conditions can affect the distribution of traits in a population causing: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species.

## Unit 2 Genetics

**Description:
Bend 1:** Students will investigate genetics and heredity, and ask questions about the phenomenon of a group of boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Students will investigate the function and role of proteins, DNA, and inheritance in the disorder. Students figure out the role of a heritable genetic mutation, and how heritable traits and disorders are related to the structure and function proteins. Students will also explore different ways that heritable diseases are passed to offspring.

**Bend 2:**Students will investigate genetics and heredity, and ask questions about the phenomenon of a group of boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. Students will investigate the function and role of proteins, DNA, and inheritance in the disorder. Students figure out the role of a heritable genetic mutation, and how heritable traits and disorders are related to the structure and function proteins. Students will also explore different ways that heritable diseases are passed to offspring. Students then ask questions about how we can use genetic engineering technologies to cure genetic disorders and explore the ethical implications of need technologies such as CRSPR-Cas9.

### Science Standards:

**HS-LS1-1** Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells.

**HS-LS1-4 **Use a model to illustrate the role of the cell cycle and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.

**HS-LS3-1** Formulate, refine, and evaluate questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.

**HS-LS3-2** Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors.

**HS-LS3-3** Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon: **Rocks spontaneously combust and cause a woman’s pants to catch fire.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
- Create a model to illustrate that energy at the microscopic scale can be accounted for as energy associated with the motions of particles and energy associated with the relative positions of particles.

## Unit 3 Ecosystems: Serengeti

**Description:**

**Bend 1:** Students will investigate the case of the rapid increase and decline of the buffalo population in the Serengeti. Students will be motivated to ask questions and develop initial hypotheses for what could have changed in the ecosystem to create such drastic population changes. Students will then analyze data from many populations of organisms in the Serengeti to figure out how population changes are the results of predator-prey relations, migrations, climate, human impact, and how disease eradication in the 1960s led to the major changes we see in the Serengeti today. Students will explore the changing buffalo populations and their effects on the Serengeti ecosystem.

**Bend 2: **Students will evaluate the claim that trees store carbon and can reduce climate change impact. Students figure out how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are key mechanisms to explaining the role of trees in climate mitigation. Finally, students will explore and compare climate change mitigation solutions.

### Science Standards:

**HS-LS1-2** Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.

**HS-LS1-3** Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis in living organisms.

**HS-LS1-4** Use a model to illustrate the role of the cell cycle and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.

**HS-LS1-5** Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.

**HS-LS1-6** Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.

**HS-LS1-7** Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy.

**HS-LS2-4** Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

**HS-LS2-1** Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity, biodiversity and populations of ecosystems at different scales.

**HS-LS2-4** Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem.

**HS-LS2-6** Evaluate the claims, evidence and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

**HS-LS2-7** Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

### Enduring Understandings

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:**

**Bend 1:** Since the 1960s, populations of herbivores in the Serengeti have fluctuated. The populations experienced a rapid increase followed by a rapid decline.

**Bend 2: **Trees can mitigate climate change.

### Essential Questions

**Reflective Summaries:**

**Bend 1:**

- Describe factors that affect carrying capacity, biodiversity, and populations in Serengeti at different scales.
- Make a claim supported by evidence of cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in Serengeti.
- Describe how complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.

**Bend 2**:

- Use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis in organisms.
- Use a model to illustrate the role of the cell cycle and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms.
- Use a model to explain how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
- How do carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules?
- Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed, resulting in a net transfer of energy.
- Describe how complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem.
- Describe how stress may reduce the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.

## Physical Science

## Unit 1 Atoms and the Periodic Table

**Description:** Students will use the periodic table to predict the relative properties of elements based on the atom’s patterns of valence electrons and composition of the nucleus. Students will also develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS1-1** Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level and the composition of the nucleus of atoms.

**HS-PS1-8** Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the process of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** On August 6, 1945, during World War II, an American bomber dropped an atomic bomb over the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The Hiroshima atomic bomb was approximately 9.84 ft. in length with a diameter of 28 in., yet it wiped out 90 percent of the city of Hiroshima and killed 80,000 people.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Develop a model to illustrate the changes in the composition of an atom and the energy released during a fission and fusion reaction.
- How are fission and fusion reactions different? Use evidence from your model to support your response.
- What role do fission and fusion reactions play in powering atomic bombs?
- How is uranium-235 different from uranium-238?
- Why is uranium-235 used to power atomic bombs instead of uranium-238?
- How is energy generated in an atomic bomb different from energy generated in a nuclear reactor?

Unit 2 Chemical Compounds and Reactions

**Description:** Students will construct and review an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction on the valence electron, periodic table trends, and patterns of chemical properties. They will also use mathematical representations in balancing chemical equations to support the claim of Conservation of Mass/Matter. Students will also use models to illustrate that energy can be accounted as a combination of energy associated with the motions and position of objects.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS1-2** Construct and revise an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.

**HS-PS1-7** Use mathematical representations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.

**HS-PS3-2** Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles and/or objects and energy associated with the relative positions of particles and/or objects.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Rocks spontaneously combust and cause a woman’s pants to catch fire.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Construct an explanation for the outcome of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties.
- Make a claim supported by evidence that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction.
- Create a model to illustrate that energy at the microscopic scale can be accounted for as energy associated with the motions of particles and energy associated with the relative positions of particles.

Unit 3 Forces and Motion

**Description: **Students will analyze data to support Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion and describe the mathematical relationship among an object’s net force and mass. They will also use mathematical representations to support the claim of Conservation of Momentum. Students will apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on an object during a collision.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS2-1** Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.

**HS-PS2-2** Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.

**HS-PS2-3** Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** Reducing forces on passengers during a potential crash is a primary design challenge when designing a car.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Make a claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration.
- Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system.
- Design a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.

## Unit 4 Energy

**Description: **Students will continue to use models to illustrate that energy can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions and relative position of particles, and connect this knowledge to design/refine a device that works within given restraints to convert one form of energy to another. Students will also conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy occurs when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system resulting in a more uniform energy distribution.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS3-2** Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles and/or objects and energy associated with the relative positions of particles and/or objects.

**HS-PS3-3** Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

**HS-PS3-4** Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics).

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in 1990 and remains in service today. The James Webb Space Telescope, which launches in 2021, will use a similar power source as the Hubble Space Telescope.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Create a model to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles and/or objects and energy associated with the relative positions of particles and/r objects
- Design and/or build a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. Does your device support or refute the law of conservation of energy?
- Plan and conduct an experiment to demonstrate the second law of thermodynamics.

Unit 5 Electricity and Magnetism

**Description:** Students will plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and or changing the magnetic field can produce an electrical current. Students will also use models of two objects interacting through electric and magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to this interaction.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS2-5** Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current.

**HS-PS3-5** Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** A Van de Graaff generator creates static electricity.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that electric current can produce a magnetic field and a changing magnetic field can produce electric current.
- Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction.

## Unit 6 Waves

**Description:** Students will use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding the relationship among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various mediums. Students will also evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials regarding the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

### Science Standards:

**HS-PS4-1** Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.

**HS-PS4-4** Evaluate the validity and reliability of claims in published materials regarding the effects that different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

### Enduring Understandings:

**Unit Anchor Phenomenon:** The F-117 Nighthawk was a Cold War era aircraft designed to be undetectable to enemy radar.

### Essential Questions:

**Reflective Summaries:**

- Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media.
- Describe the effects different frequencies of electromagnetic radiation have when absorbed by matter.

## Social Studies

- Grade K
- Grade 1
- Grade 2
- Grade 3
- Grade 4
- Grade 5
- Grade 6
- Grade 7
- Grade 8
- Government
- World Geography
- World History
- US History

## Grade K

## Unit 1 My Community and Its Government

**Description:** In this unit, students will explore the role of an authority figure, the importance of rules, and responsibilities as a citizen. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore their community and maps.

### Social Studies Standards:

**K.4.1 ** Identify individuals in a position of authority within a family, school, or community and their responsibilities

**K.4.2 ** Explain the importance of rules at home, class, and school

**K.4.3 ** Discuss the roles, rights, and responsibilities of being a good citizen in a family, class, and school

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How do I fit into my community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- Who are the people in authority within a family, school, and community?
- How do authority figures help us?
- What does an authority figure do?
- Why are rules important at home, in class, and at school?
- What are the roles, rights, and responsibilities of a good citizen?

## Unit 2 Me and My Community

**Description: **In this unit, students will explore maps and learn foundational map skills. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will apply map skills and learn about the ways people live in various areas.

### Social Studies Standards:

**K.3.1 ** Demonstrate an understanding of the relative locations of objects through the use of appropriate vocabulary

**K.3.2** Identify maps and globes as a representation of the earth and recognize the difference between land and water

**K.3.3 ** Demonstrate geographic knowledge of places within the school and community

**K.3.5 ** Construct maps of familiar locations

**K.3.9** Demonstrate spatial understanding that students are a part of (i.e., classroom, school, town/city, and state)

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How do I fit into my community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What is a map?
- How can maps help us?
- Where do I live?
- How can I tell about places in my school and community?

### Unit 3 My Community and Its Geography

**Description:** In this unit, students will explore how the landscape and weather affects the lives of people in various areas. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore the past, including how life was different and important events that helped to shape the country.

### Social Studies Standards:

**K.3.1** Demonstrate an understanding of the relative locations of objects through the use of appropriate vocabulary

**K.3.4 ** Illustrate basic landforms

**K.3.6** Describe how weather affects daily choices

**K.3.7 ** Describe how people live differently in other places using various sources

**K.3.8** Identify natural resources as being renewable/non-renewable or recyclable

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How do I fit into my community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- Develop a model depicting how an eagle sees.
- How can we describe the location of objects compared to others?
- How can we classify our natural resources?
- How does weather affect daily choices?
- How do people in various places live differently?

## Unit 4 My Community and Its Heritage

**Description:** In this unit, students will explore the past, including how life was different and important events that helped to shape the country. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore leaders and their influence on history.

### Social Studies Standards:

**K.1.1 ** Order events that take place in a sequence using appropriate vocabulary

**K.1.2 ** Describe the function of tools used for representing time

**K.2.1 ** Compare and contrast children and families of today with those in the past using various sources

**K.2.2 ** Identify symbols of local, state, and national importance using various sources

**K.2.3** Identify local, state, and national celebrations, holidays, and events using various sources

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How has the past helped us today?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How do we measure time?
- How can I describe events in a correct sequence?
- How are children and families today both the same and different from those in the past?
- What are some important local, state, and national symbols?
- What are some celebrations, holidays, and events and why are they important?

## Unit 5 My Community and Its Leaders

**Description: **In this unit, students will explore key historical people and their influence on the country. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore foundational economic skills related to their lives.

### Social Studies Standards:

**K.2.4** Recall facts about people of the past and present

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How has the past helped us today?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- Who are some important people from history?
- How have these people influenced history?

## Unit 6 My Community and Its Economy

**Description:** In this unit, students will explore foundational economics as it applies to their lives. This final unit sets the stage for first grade to follow where students further develop all skills in more depth and detail.

### Social Studies Standards:

**K.5.1** Identify wants and basic needs

**K.5.2** Explore the concept of saving

**K.5.3** Discuss the concept of scarcity within classroom situations

**K.5.4** Explore concepts of goods/services

**K.5.5 ** Describe jobs that people do to earn money

**K.5.6** Explain how products get from a point of origin to consumers

**K.5.7** Describe a voluntary exchange/trade

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How do people earn and use money?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What are wants and basic needs?
- How does scarcity impact us in the classroom?
- What are goods and services and how do we get them?
- How do people earn and save money?

## Grade 1

## Unit 1 My School and My Community

**Description:** In this unit, students explore the necessity of rules, jobs in their community, and what makes their community special. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students explore what it means to be a citizen of a community.

### Social Studies Standards:

**1.1.2** Create a primary source of personal information

**1.2.2** Describe reasons for celebrating events commemorated in national holidays

**1.3.6 ** Compare and contrast local traditions/celebrations, customs, languages, and foods as an introduction to culture

**1.4.1** Develop a list of rules for the classroom and describe their benefits/consequences

**1.4.2** State examples of rules and laws in the home, school, and community and explain their purposes

**1.5.4** Identify jobs and industries within the school and community

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **What role do I play in my school and community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How do rules help us?
- What is the purpose of rules/laws at home, at school, and in the community?
- What jobs and industries can be found within the school and community and how do they benefit the school and community?
- Why are local traditions/celebrations, customs, languages, and foods important?

## Unit 2 I’m a Citizen

**Description:** In this unit, students explore what it means to be a citizen in the classroom, school, and community. They also examine the roles and responsibilities of leaders. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students explore events and people from the past and how important events and leaders have impacted their lives today.

### Social Studies Standards:

**1.4.3 ** Identify the current mayor, governor, and president

**1.4.4** Describe the student's role, rights, and responsibilities as a citizen of the class, the school, and the community

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **What role do I play in my school and community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What are the roles, rights, and responsibilities of a citizen of the class, school, and community?
- Who are the current political leaders of the community, state, and country?

Unit 3 The Past is Important

**Description:** In this unit, students explore events and people from the past and how important events and leaders have impacted their lives, with an emphasis on national holidays. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students explore how the environment and world impact their life.

### Social Studies Standards:

**1.1.1** Construct personal timelines that highlight past and present events

**1.1.2 ** Create a primary source of personal information

**1.1.3** Compare and contrast lifestyles of the past to the present

**1.2.1 ** Identify and explain the importance of American heroes, symbols, landmarks, and patriotic songs

**1.2.2 ** Describe reasons for celebrating events commemorated in national holidays

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How do people and the environment impact my world?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How can we show the events of our lives in chronological order?
- How are lifestyles from the past the same and different from lifestyles of today?
- Why are American heroes, symbols, landmarks, and patriotic songs important?
- Why do we celebrate events commemorated by national holidays?

## Unit 4 The World Around Me

**Description:** In this unit, students explore how the environment and world impact their life and the lives of others. They learn how people use and impact the environment. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students explore landforms and map skills.

### Social Studies Standards:

**1.3.5** Describe the impact that seasons have on daily activities and on the physical environment in various regions

**1.3.7 ** Explain ways in which people rely on the environment to meet the basic human needs of food, clothing, and shelter

**1.3.8 ** Describe how the environment determines various types of human shelters

**1.3.10 ** Predict ways human actions impact the environment

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How do people and the environment impact my world?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How do the seasons impact daily activities in various regions?
- In what ways do people rely on the environment to meet their basic needs?
- How does the environment determine various types of human shelters?
- How do people impact the environment?

## Unit 5 Maps Help Us

**Description: **In this unit, students explore landforms and basic map skills. They gain an understanding of how to read maps and the use of maps in their community and world.

### Social Studies Standards:

**1.3.1 ** Identify a representation of a location/space on a map/globe

**1.3.2 ** Identify simple map symbols, compass rose (cardinal directions), and key/legend

**1.3.3** Use mental mapping (visualizing details of a place or location out of one’s sight) to develop a basic map of local places

**1.3.4 ** Identify basic landforms using a globe or map

**1.3.9** Identify by name the town/city, parish, state, and country in which the student lives

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How do maps help us?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How do you use the different parts of a map?
- How do you create a map of a place?
- How are different landforms shown on a map/globe?
- How can you locate your town, parish, state, and country on a map?

## Unit 6 How the Economy Works

**Description:** In this unit, students explore basic economic principles of saving versus spending and goods/services. This final unit sets the stage for second grade to follow where students further develop all skills in more depth and detail.

### Social Studies Standards:

**1.5.1** Identify ways to save money

**1.5.2** Distinguish between the needs/wants of people by responding to real-life situations

**1.5.3** Distinguish between goods and services

**1.5.5** Identify ways people exchange/trade goods and services

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** What do I need and how can I get it?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How can people save money?
- How do you know if something is a need or a want?
- What is the difference between a good and a service?
- How can people get goods and services?

## Grade 2

## Unit 1 Our Community and Its Geography

**Description:** In this unit, students will learn about different types of communities and how communities change, grow, and develop over time. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore their heritage and traditions, and the impact of past events in their nation.

### Social Studies Standards:

**2.1.2** Compare and contrast the present day community to that of the past using primary sources

**2.2.1** Locate and identify the poles, equator, continents, oceans, the United States, Louisiana, and the local community

**2.2.2** Interpret physical maps using the title, key, symbols, compass rose (cardinal and intermediate directions), and alpha numeric grids

**2.2.3** Construct maps of familiar places that include a title, key/legend, symbols, and compass rose

**2.2.4** Identify major geographical features in the local region, state, and country

**2.2.5** Describe how location, weather, and physical features affect where people live and work

**2.2.6** Describe changes in the characteristics of the local community over time

**2.2.7** Compare and contrast basic land use and economic activities in urban, suburban, and rural environments

**2.2.9 ** Identify natural resources and cite ways people conserve, protect, and replenish them

**2.2.10** Identify natural disasters, predict where they may occur, and explain their effects on people and the environment

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How does environment impact a community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How do the characteristics of a community change over time?
- What are the similarities and differences between urban, rural, and suburban environments?
- How do the physical characteristics of a region impact the development of communities?
- How can we find our community on a map?
- How can we preserve, protect and replenish natural resources?
- How do natural disasters impact people and the environment?

## Unit 2 Our Community and Its Heritage

**Description:** In this unit, students will learn about key historic events that helped shape our lives/communities as well as the significance of historical symbols. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore significant people in history and their actions.

### Social Studies Standards:

**2.1.1** Create simple timelines to describe important events in the history of the school or local community

**2.1.2** Compare and contrast the present day community to that of the past using primary sources

**2.1.6** Identify historical turning points and describe their impact on students’ lives using maps, documents, visuals, and technology

**2.1.7 ** Describe how early explorers and settlers, American Indian nations, and western migration influenced the development of the United States

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** What events and people have shaped our community and culture?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How have key events in history impacted our lives?
- How are key events in history associated with national symbols, landmarks, and essential documents?

## Unit 3 Our Community and Its Leaders

**Description:** In this unit, students will explore key historical people and their actions that have made lasting impacts on the country. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore government at a local level.

### Social Studies Standards:

**2.1.1** Create simple timelines to describe important events in the history of the school or local community

**2.1.3** Describe people and events associated with national symbols, landmarks, and essential documents

**2.1.5** Describe how the achievements of famous Americans, of the past and present, changed society

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** What events and people have shaped our community and culture?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How are famous Americans associated with national symbols, landmarks, and essential documents?
- How have the achievements of famous Americans changed society?

## Unit 4 Our Community and Its Government

**Description:** In this unit, students will learn about local government, how citizens’ needs are met, and the role they can play in being responsible citizens. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore economics and how economics impacts communities.

### Social Studies Standards:

**2.3.1** Describe ways a responsible government meets the basic needs of the local community

**2.3.2** Identify the three branches of the national government as represented by the President, Congress, and the Supreme Court

**2.3.3** Recognize current political leaders of the community, state, and nation and describe how they are elected

**2.4.1** Define the character traits of good citizens and discuss examples of responsible citizens

**2.4.2** Describe the responsibilities of citizens in the United States

**2.4.3** Describe ways in which responsible citizens can work together to help leaders resolve conflicts within the community

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **What does government look like in Louisiana and my community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How does a responsible government meet the needs of the local community?
- Who are the current political leaders of the community, state, and country?
- How are political leaders elected?
- What are the characteristics and responsibilities of good citizens?

## Unit 5 Our Community and Its Economy

**Description: **In this unit, students will learn about the role producers and consumers play in economics, and how economics can be affected. This sets the stage for the unit to follow where students will explore their community and how it has been impacted through various means.

### Social Studies Standards:

**2.5.1** Describe a variety of services provided by local economic institutions

**2.5.2** Explain the benefits of personal savings

**2.5.3** Explain how scarcity of resources and opportunity cost requires people to make choices to satisfy wants and needs

**2.6.1** Describe how people can be both producers and consumers of local goods and services

**2.6.2** Identify the specialized work necessary to manufacture, transport, and market goods and services

**2.6.3** Provide examples of how money and barter are used to obtain resources (goods and services)

**2.7.1** Describe different types of domestic and international jobs/careers in which people work to earn income

**2.7.2** Describe skills and education needed for specific jobs

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** What does economics look like in Louisiana and my community?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What are the different types of careers in the workforce and what are skills necessary for specific jobs?
- How can people be both producers and consumers?
- How are money and barter used to obtain goods and services?
- How does the scarcity of a resource and opportunity cost impact choices people make?

Unit 6 Our Community and Its Culture

**Description:** In this unit, students will learn about the interdependence between people, animals, and the environment. They will look at how this has impacted cultural events, traditions, and celebrations.

### Social Studies Standards:

**2.1.4** Explain reasons for local, state, and national celebrations, cultural events, and traditions and their significance

**2.2.6** Describe changes in the characteristics of the local community over time

**2.2.8** Describe the vegetation, the animal life, and the cultural characteristics of the people specific to local regions and how they are interdependent

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **What impact does environment have on local culture?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How are vegetation, animal life, and culture of a region interdependent?
- How have vegetation, animal life, and communities changed over time?
- Why do we have local, state, and national celebrations, cultural events, and traditions?
- Why are local, state, and national celebrations, cultural events, and traditions significant?

## Grade 3

## Unit 1 Louisiana Today

**Description:** Students understand the meaning of culture and how it defines a place. They identify and define the many characteristics of culture, each of which represents the people who live there. They explore the place known as Louisiana in the context of the world and country. They also examine examples of cultural elements that define Louisiana and make it a unique place.

### Social Studies Standards:

**3.1.4 ** Compare and contrast state and national historical symbols

**3.1.5** Categorize landmarks as state and national

**3.1.6** Compare and contrast the influence of cultural groups in Louisiana

**3.2.4** Identify cultural elements that have contributed to the state’s heritage

**3.3.1** Describe characteristics and uses of various types of maps

**3.3.2** Identify the hemispheres in which Louisiana is located

**3.3.3 ** Locate various communities and cities in Louisiana using cardinal and intermediate directions

**3.3.4** Locate and label major geographic features of Louisiana on a map

**3.3.5** Differentiate between a town, parish, state, and country in which the student lives using a political map

**3.3.6** Construct an outline map of Louisiana from memory

**3.3.7** Locate specific places on a map using a simple grid system

**3.4.1** Compare and contrast the physical features of various regions of Louisiana

**3.4.6** Distinguish between urban, suburban, and rural communities in Louisiana

**3.4.7** Describe the importance of natural resources in Louisiana using maps

**3.7.1** Identify various ways that people earn income and how earning income contributes to the economic well-being of their community and state

**3.8.2** Investigate ways in which people are producers and consumers and explain why they depend on one another

**3.9.1** Explain the concepts of specialization and interdependence in the production of goods and services

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** What makes Louisiana unique?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How does location define a place?
- How does Louisiana’s environment provide for the needs of its people?
- What is culture?
- What does it mean to be unique?
- How do Louisiana’s cultural characteristics make it unique?
- How are different types of communities similar and different?
- How do we see elements of culture in a place?

## Unit 2 Louisiana’s First Inhabitants

**Description:** Students explore how the geography of Louisiana influenced the settlement of Louisiana’s Native Americans. Students also explore how aspects of Native American culture are still present today and how this influence contributes to the unique state of Louisiana.

### Social Studies Standards:

**3.1.1** Create timelines that identify important events in the history of Louisiana

**3.1.2 ** Explain how technology has changed family and community life in Louisiana over time

**3.1.3** Use distinctive vocabulary to sequence events related to Louisiana history

**3.1.6** Compare and contrast the influence of cultural groups in Louisiana

**3.1.7 ** Identify community and regional historical artifacts, including primary sources, to answer historical questions

**3.2.2** Differentiate between early Native American cultures that lived in the regions of Louisiana

**3.2.4 ** Identify cultural elements that have contributed to the state’s heritage

**3.3.3** Locate various communities and cities in Louisiana using cardinal and intermediate directions

**3.4.1 ** Compare and contrast the physical features of various regions of Louisiana

**3.4.2** Explain historical patterns of settlement in Louisiana using maps

**3.4.3** Describe how people have changed the land to meet their basic needs over time in Louisiana

**3.4.4** Explain how humans have adapted to the physical environment in different regions of Louisiana

**3.4.7** Describe the importance of natural resources in Louisiana using maps

**3.10.2** Distinguish between the use of money and barter

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How have Indigenous cultures in Louisiana changed over time?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How did early Native Americans begin to define the unique culture of Louisiana based on the artifacts remaining from their historical period?
- How did the geography of each region of Louisiana impact the development of Native American culture in Louisiana?
- How did Native Americans adapt to living in Louisiana?

## Unit 3 Colonial Louisiana

**Description:** Students learn about why explorers came to Louisiana and how European colonization contributed to the uniqueness of Louisiana.

### Social Studies Standards:

**3.1.1** Create timelines that identify important events in the history of Louisiana

**3.1.2** Explain how technology has changed family and community life in Louisiana over time

**3.1.3** Use distinctive vocabulary to sequence events related to Louisiana history

**3.1.6** Compare and contrast the influence of cultural groups in Louisiana

**3.1.7** Identify community and regional historical artifacts, including primary sources, to answer historical questions

**3.2.1** Explain how major explorers and leaders contributed to the early development of Louisiana

**3.2.3** Identify the causes and effects of migration on Louisiana

**3.2.4 ** Identify cultural elements that have contributed to the state’s heritage

**3.4.1** Compare and contrast the physical features of various regions of Louisiana

**3.4.2** Explain historical patterns of settlement in Louisiana using maps

**3.4.7** Describe the importance of natural resources in Louisiana using maps

**3.8.1 ** Investigate the economic concepts of opportunity cost, scarcity, and surplus/shortage and give examples of each based on needs and wants

**3.8.2** Investigate ways in which people are producers and consumers and explain why they depend on one another

**3.8.3** Describe the basic concepts of supply and demand and explain how competition affects the prices of goods and services

**3.10.2 ** Distinguish between the use of money and barter

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How did exploration and colonization change Louisiana?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- Why did explorers come to Louisiana?
- What features of Louisiana impressed explorers and led to the colonization of Louisiana?
- Why was control of Louisiana important to France during the colonial era?
- How and why did the possession of Louisiana change over time?
- How did European colonization contribute to the development of Louisiana?
- How did the Acadians come to live in Louisiana?
- How did the Acadians contribute to Louisiana’s heritage?

## Unit 4 State of Louisiana

**Description:** Students learn about how Louisiana became a part of the United States while maintaining many characteristics that are unique to our state.

### Social Studies Standards:

**3.1.1** Create timelines that identify important events in the history of Louisiana

**3.1.3** Use distinctive vocabulary to sequence events related to Louisiana history

**3.1.6** Compare and contrast the influence of cultural groups in Louisiana

**3.2.1** Explain how major explorers and leaders contributed to the early development of Louisiana

**3.2.3** Identify the causes and effects of migration on Louisiana

**3.2.4** Identify cultural elements that have contributed to the state’s heritage

**3.5.1** Explain the difference between rules and laws

**3.5.2** Explain who is responsible for enforcing state and local laws

**3.5.3** Investigate the major responsibilities of the three branches of local and state government

**3.5.4** Explain how local and state governments meet the basic needs of society

**3.5.5** Discuss the powers of local and state officials

**3.5.6** Compare how government officials at the state and national levels are elected

**3.6.1** Explain the rights and responsibilities of individuals in making a community and state a better place to live

**3.6.2** Describe the qualities of a good leader and citizen

**3.6.3** Describe how a citizen can help solve a local issue

**3.8.1** Investigate the economic concepts of opportunity cost, scarcity, and surplus/shortage and give examples of each based on needs and wants

**3.8.3 ** Describe the basic concepts of supply and demand and explain how competition affects the prices of goods and services

**3.10.1** Differentiate between imports and exports of goods in Louisiana

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How does the government affect the lives of people in Louisiana?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How did the Louisiana Purchase impact the development of Louisiana?
- How did Louisiana become a state?
- How is Louisiana’s government similar to and different from the government of the United States?
- How does the government impact citizens?

## Unit 5 Louisiana’s Future

**Description:** Students learn how the unique characteristics of Louisiana’s geography, history, culture, and economy are interconnected. Students explore the positive and negative impacts of Louisiana’s development, and how our development has contributed to the uniqueness of our state.

### Social Studies Standards:

**3.1.6** Compare and contrast the influence of cultural groups in Louisiana

**3.2.4** Identify cultural elements that have contributed to the state’s heritage

**3.4.1** Compare and contrast the physical features of various regions of Louisiana

**3.4.3** Describe how people have changed the land to meet their basic needs over time in Louisiana

**3.4.4 ** Explain how humans have adapted to the physical environment in different regions of Louisiana

**3.4.5** Describe how humans affect the environment in Louisiana

**3.4.7** Describe the importance of natural resources in Louisiana using maps

**3.6.3** Describe how a citizen can help solve a local issue

**3.7.1** Identify various ways that people earn income and how earning income contributes to the economic well-being of their community and state

**3.7.2 ** List different ways people save their income and explain the advantages and disadvantages of each

**3.7.3** Explain the benefits of comparative shopping when making economic decisions

**3.8.1** Investigate the economic concepts of opportunity cost, scarcity, and surplus/shortage and give examples of each based on needs and wants

**3.8.2 ** Investigate ways in which people are producers and consumers and explain why they depend on one another

**3.8.3 ** Describe the basic concepts of supply and demand and explain how competition affects the prices of goods and services

**3.8.4 ** Explain how producers and consumers affect prices

**3.9.1** Explain the concepts of specialization and interdependence in the production of goods and services

**3.9.2 ** Investigate the responsibilities and characteristics of various jobs

**3.10.1** Differentiate between imports and exports of goods in Louisiana

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How has Louisiana changed while preserving unique elements of its rich heritage?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How do different factors affect production and price?
- How do people impact the economy?
- How is Louisiana’s economy unique?
- How have people adapted to life in Louisiana?
- How do people change the land to meet their needs?
- How does changing the land impact Louisiana?
- How do the geography, history, culture, and economy of Louisiana establish our state’s unique identity?
- How can citizens help Louisiana as we move into the future?
- How has Louisiana changed over time yet preserved unique aspects of its rich heritage?

## Grade 4

## Unit 1 America the Beautiful

**Description:** Students explore a series of maps of the United States spanning history and learn about the geography, culture, and economic activities of regions within the United States.

### Social Studies Standards:

**4.1.4 ** Produce clear and coherent writing to:

-compare and contrast past and present viewpoints on a given historical topic

-conduct simple research

-summarize actions/events and explain the significance

-differentiate between the 5 regions of the United States

**4.4.1** Locate and label continents, oceans, the poles, hemispheres, and key parallels and meridians on a map and globe

**4.4.2** Locate and label on a map the major physical features of each of the five regions of the United States and summarize how they affect the climate, economy, and population of each region

**4.4.3** Identify the states of each of the five regions of the United States

**4.4.4** Measure approximate distance on a map using a scale to the nearest hundredth mile

**4.4.5** Determine the approximate longitude and latitude coordinates of various locations in the United States

**4.4.6** Interpret various types of maps using a key/legend, compass rose including cardinal and intermediate directions, latitude/longitude, and scale

**4.4.7** Use mental mapping to construct a map of the United States regions and the world to include map elements (title, compass rose, legend/key, scale)

**4.5.1** Compare and contrast the distinguishing physical characteristics of the five regions of the United States

**4.5.2 ** Analyze how the physical characteristics of a region shape its economic development

**4.5.3 ** Identify and explain how the physical characteristics of a region influenced human settlement

**4.6.1** Illustrate how natural processes have created and/or changed the physical characteristics of places in the United States

**4.6.2 ** Describe the human impact on the land and bodies of water of the five regions of the United States

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How does geography influence human activity?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What information do maps tell us about a given area?
- How do we read a map?
- Why do we use maps?
- What is life like for people living in each region of the US?
- How have geography and land influenced the way people live?

## Unit 2 Early America

**Description:** Students examine the impact of European exploration and colonization of the Americas on Native people, boundaries, territory, and land.

### Social Studies Standards:

**4.1.1 ** Construct timelines of historical events

**4.1.2 ** Use timelines to explain how changes over time have caused movement of people or expansion of boundaries in the United States

**4.1.4** Produce clear and coherent writing to:

-compare and contrast past and present viewpoints on a given historical topic

-conduct simple research

-summarize actions/events and explain the significance

-differentiate between the 5 regions of the United States

**4.2.1** Explain how early explorations affected the expansion of boundaries and development in the United States

**4.2.3** Explain the voluntary migration of people and its significance in the development of the boundaries of the United States

**4.5.2** Analyze how the physical characteristics of a region shape its economic development

**4.5.3 ** Identify and explain how the physical characteristics of a region influenced human settlement

**4.9.2 ** Identify examples of human, natural, and capital resources and explain how these resources are used to produce goods and provide services

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How do exploration & colonization change populations, boundaries, and land?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How and why did the world map change after European exploration of the Americas?
- How did exploration affect country boundaries?
- How would exploration later affect the formation of the United States?
- How did the colonists’ reasons for migrating influence where they chose to settle?
- How did geography influence life and economic activities in the colonies?

## Unit 3 Governing a New Nation

**Description:** Students explore the formation of the United States of America, from the eve of the American Revolution through the creation of the new government.

### Social Studies Standards:

**4.1.1 ** Construct timelines of historical events

**4.1.2 ** Use timelines to explain how changes over time have caused movement of people or expansion of boundaries in the United States

**4.1.4 ** Produce clear and coherent writing to:

-compare and contrast past and present viewpoints on a given historical topic

-conduct simple research

-summarize actions/events and explain the significance

-differentiate between the 5 regions of the United States

**4.1.5** Explain the historical significance of U.S. political symbols

**4.1.6 ** Define and distinguish between primary and secondary sources

**4.1.7 ** Summarize primary resources and explain their historical importance

**4.2.2** Cite evidence to support the key contributions and influence of people in the history of the United States

**4.2.4** Draw conclusions about the relationship of significant events in the history of the United States to the expansion of democracy in the United States

**4.7.1** Identify and summarize significant changes that have been made to the United States Constitution through the amendment process

**4.7.2** Explain the significance of key ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights

**4.7.3** Identify and analyze the basic purposes and necessity of government as identified in the Preamble to the United States Constitution

**4.7.4 ** Differentiate between the structure and function of the three branches of the federal government

**4.8.1 ** Identify the key requirements to become a United States citizen

**4.8.2** Differentiate between citizens’ rights, responsibilities, and duties

**4.8.3** Describe the qualities of a good citizen and how good citizenship contributes to the United States’ democracy

**4.8.4** Explain how good citizenship can solve a current issue

**4.9.4 ** Investigate the relationship between supply, demand, and price

**4.9.5 ** Describe how the government pays for goods and services through taxes and fees

**4.9.7** Explain why individuals and businesses engage in barter and trade

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How can conflict and compromise change a nation?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What were the main colonial grievances that led to rebellion?
- How is the Declaration of Independence significant in United States history?
- What tactics did the colonists use leading up to the Revolution?
- What were the effects of the American Revolution?
- What role did the Founding Fathers play in the creation of the documents that shaped the United States?
- How have the United States democratic documents shaped the government’s structure and functions?
- Who did not receive the rights of full citizenship in early American history?
- What are the rights, responsibilities, and duties of citizens?
- What are the qualities of a good citizen?
- How can good citizenship solve problems?

## Unit 4 Westward Expansion

**Description:** Students explore the causes of westward migration in the United States and consider the effects on people and the development of borders.

### Social Studies Standards:

**4.1.1** Construct timelines of historical events

**4.1.4** Produce clear and coherent writing to:

-compare and contrast past and present viewpoints on a given historical topic

-conduct simple research

-summarize actions/events and explain the significance

-differentiate between the 5 regions of the United States

**4.2.1 ** Explain how early explorations affected the expansion of boundaries and development in the United States

**4.2.2** Cite evidence to support the key contributions and influence of people in the history of the United States

**4.2.3** Explain the voluntary migration of people and its significance in the development of the boundaries of the United States

**4.3.1** Explain how inventions and new processes affected the lives of people, migration, and the economy of regions of the United States

**4.4.6** Interpret various types of maps using a key/legend, compass rose including cardinal and intermediate directions, latitude/longitude, and scale

**4.5.2** Analyze how the physical characteristics of a region shape its economic development

**4.5.3** Identify and explain how the physical characteristics of a region influenced human settlement

**4.6.2** Describe the human impact on the land and bodies of water of the five regions of the United States

**4.9.2** Identify examples of human, natural, and capital resources and explain how these resources are used to produce goods and provide services

**4.9.3 ** Define the terms profit and risk and explain how they relate to each other

**4.9.4 ** Investigate the relationship between supply, demand, and price

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How did the westward expansion impact people, places, and ideas?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What conditions enabled people to move west?
- What motivated people to move west?
- What were the effects of Westward Migration on Native Americans?
- How did Westward Migration impact the borders of the United States?
- What factors led to the development and expansion of the railroad?
- How did the advancements in transportation impact the borders of the United States?
- How did the transcontinental railroad affect life for people living in the US, including migrants and Native Americans?
- How did the transcontinental railroad affect the environment in the West?

## Unit 5 Progress and Change

**Description:** Students explore the impact of industrialization on American society including rapid urbanization and European immigration.

### Social Studies Standards:

**4.1.4 ** Produce clear and coherent writing to:

-compare and contrast past and present viewpoints on a given historical topic

-conduct simple research

-summarize actions/events and explain the significance

-differentiate between the 5 regions of the United States

**4.1.5** Explain the historical significance of U.S. political symbols

**4.2.2** Cite evidence to support the key contributions and influence of people in the history of the United States

**4.2.4** Draw conclusions about the relationship of significant events in the history of the United States to the expansion of democracy in the United States

**4.2.5** Use the concepts “melting pot,” “salad bowl,” and “cultural mosaic” to explain the impact of immigration on population growth and diversity in the United States

**4.3.1** Explain how inventions and new processes affected the lives of people, migration, and the economy of regions of the United States

**4.4.6** Interpret various types of maps using a key/legend, compass rose including cardinal and intermediate directions, latitude/longitude, and scale

**4.5.2 ** Analyze how the physical characteristics of a region shape its economic development

**4.9.1 **Develop a logical argument to support the choice of a particular want after all needs are met

**4.9.2** Identify examples of human, natural, and capital resources and explain how these resources are used to produce goods and provide services

**4.9.3** Define the terms profit and risk and explain how they relate to each other

**4.9.4** Investigate the relationship between supply, demand, and price

**4.9.5** Describe how the government pays for goods and services through taxes and fees

**4.9.8** Differentiate between money (currency), checks, debit cards, and credit cards and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each type of monetary exchange

**4.9.9** Define budget, income, and expense and explain the benefits of making and following a budget

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** What are the political, economic, and social effects of progress?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What was the Industrial Revolution?
- How did the economy change as a result of industrialization?
- How did industrialization impact where people lived in the United States?
- What is urbanization and why did it occur?
- What factors contributed to the immigration of Europeans in the early 20th century?
- What was life like for immigrants living in cities?
- How have immigrants contributed to the culture of the United States?
- What role did women have in improving conditions in cities?
- What factors led to the Great Migration of African Americans to northern cities?
- How did the movement to these cities change the lives of African Americans?

## Unit 6 Impact of Technology

**Description:** Students explore the impact of new inventions and advancing innovation on people’s lives and the ways that people interact with each other and the world.

### Social Studies Standards:

**4.1.4** Produce clear and coherent writing to:

-compare and contrast past and present viewpoints on a given historical topic

-conduct simple research

-summarize actions/events and explain the significance

-differentiate between the 5 regions of the United States

**4.3.1 ** Explain how inventions and new processes affected the lives of people, migration, and the economy of regions of the United States

**4.9.2 ** Identify examples of human, natural, and capital resources and explain how these resources are used to produce goods and provide services

**4.9.3** Define the terms profit and risk and explain how they relate to each other

**4.9.4** Investigate the relationship between supply, demand, and price

**4.9.6 ** Summarize the roles of households, businesses, jobs, banks, and governments in the economy

**4.9.8** Differentiate between money (currency), checks, debit cards, and credit cards and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each type of monetary exchange

**4.9.10 ** Analyze the benefits of increasing skills

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How has technology impacted the way that people live and interact?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How did advancements in medical technology impact people’s lives?
- What were the effects of household inventions on domestic life?
- What were the effects of household inventions on the economy?
- What are the effects of transportation technology?
- How has communication technology changed the way that people interact with each other?

## Grade 5

## Unit 1 Indigenous Cultures of the Americas

**Description:** Students explore the characteristics of civilization and consider how the development of various indigenous cultures of the Americas exemplifies those characteristics.

### Social Studies Standards:

**5.1.1 ** Create a timeline of key events in early American history from pre-Columbian civilizations to 1763

**5.1.2** Examine primary and secondary sources to research early American colonial history from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.1.4** Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences through the following tasks:

-Conducting historical research

-Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources

-Comparing and contrasting varied points of view

-Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts

-Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product

**5.2.1** Describe the origins, characteristics, and expansion of indigenous cultures and groups that existed in the Americas prior to European exploration

**5.4.1** Differentiate between various types of maps using characteristics, functions, and applications

**5.4.2** Analyze a map using a variety of tools

**5.4.3 ** Analyze maps from the Age of Exploration to 1763

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** What is a civilization?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What is a civilization?
- What are the characteristics of a civilization?
- What do sources reveal about the characteristics of civilization exemplified by the Aztec Empire?
- How do indigenous cultures of the Americas exemplify the characteristics of a civilization?
- How were early civilizations of the Americas similar to and different from one another?

## Unit 2 European Exploration

**Description:** Students learn about early European exploration and encounter with indigenous groups to consider what happens when cultures collide.

### Social Studies Standards:

**5.1.1** Create a timeline of key events in early American history from pre-Columbian civilizations to 1763

**5.1.2** Examine primary and secondary sources to research early American colonial history from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.1.4** Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences through the following tasks:

-Conducting historical research

-Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources

-Comparing and contrasting varied points of view

-Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts

-Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product

**5.2.2** Identify early explorers and their motivations, challenges, and achievements

**5.2.3** Describe the Spanish conquests in the Americas, including the impact on the Aztecs, Incas, and other indigenous peoples

**5.2.4** Explain the course and consequences of the Columbian Exchange, including its cultural, ecological, economic, and political impact on Europe, the Americas, and West Africa

**5.3.1** Compare and contrast the convergence of trade, cultural diffusion, and innovation in the Western Hemisphere after 1492

**5.3.2** Describe cooperation and conflict among Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans

**5.4.2** Analyze a map using a variety of tools

**5.4.3** Analyze maps from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.8.1** Cite evidence of the economic motivations for European exploration and settlement in the Americas using economic concepts such as supply and demand and scarcity

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question: **How did European exploration affect the lives of people in the Americas?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How do issues of morality, wealth, and power influence exploration?
- How were motivations for exploration similar and different?
- Why did Europeans risk the challenges associated with exploration?
- What were the positive and negative consequences of the Columbian Exchange?
- How did early interactions between European explorers and indigenous groups create rising tensions in the New World?
- What role did perceptions play in the early interactions between the European explorers and indigenous groups of the Americas?

## Unit 3 Settlement of Present-Day United States

**Description:** Students explore the establishment of colonies in the present-day United States during the early 17th century. They consider how colonization is a part of establishing a civilization.

### Social Studies Standards:

**5.1.1** Create a timeline of key events in early American history from pre-Columbian civilizations to 1763

**5.1.2 ** Examine primary and secondary sources to research early American colonial history from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.1.3 ** Compare and contrast different points of view of key individuals and groups in early colonial American history to 1763

**5.1.4 ** Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences through the following tasks:

-Conducting historical research

-Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources

-Comparing and contrasting varied points of view

-Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts

-Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product

**5.2.4** Explain the course and consequences of the Columbian Exchange, including its cultural, ecological, economic, and political impact on Europe, the Americas, and West Africa

**5.3.1** Compare and contrast the convergence of trade, cultural diffusion, and innovation in the Western Hemisphere after 1492

**5.3.2** Describe cooperation and conflict among Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans

**5.3.3** Identify the major European powers that colonized North America and explain their goals, challenges, and achievements

**5.3.4** Compare and contrast religious groups that settled in colonial America and examine the role of religion in colonial communities

**5.4.1** Differentiate between various types of maps using characteristics, functions, and applications

**5.4.2** Analyze a map using a variety of tools

**5.4.3** Analyze maps from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.5.1** Describe ways in which location and environment influenced the settlements and land use in colonial America

**5.5.2** Identify natural resources used by people of colonial America and describe the impact of human action on the physical environment

**5.6.1** Compare and contrast the different types of government in colonial America that influenced the development of the United States

**5.8.1** Cite evidence of the economic motivations for European exploration and settlement in the Americas using economic concepts such as supply and demand and scarcity

**5.9.1** Describe trade between the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa during the colonial period

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How did the colonial period in North America influence the economic or social development of the United States?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- Why did colonists settle where they did?
- What made the Jamestown Colony successful when so many other colonies failed?
- Why did colonists immigrate to the New World and what challenges did they face when they got there?
- How did interactions with Native Americans impact colonial life?
- Why was it critical for Native Americans and colonists to get along?

## Unit 4 Colonial Advancements

**Description:** Students explore how the colonies advanced, including how the British colonies evolved into three distinct regions and how the colonies interacted with indigenous groups, each other, and other nations.

### Social Studies Standards:

**5.1.1** Create a timeline of key events in early American history from pre-Columbian civilizations to 1763

**5.1.2** Examine primary and secondary sources to research early American colonial history from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.1.3 ** Compare and contrast different points of view of key individuals and groups in early colonial American history to 1763

**5.1.4** Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences through the following tasks:

-Conducting historical research

-Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources

-Comparing and contrasting varied points of view

-Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts

-Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product

**5.2.4** Explain the course and consequences of the Columbian Exchange, including its cultural, ecological, economic, and political impact on Europe, the Americas, and West Africa

**5.3.1** Compare and contrast the convergence of trade, cultural diffusion, and innovation in the Western Hemisphere after 1492

**5.3.2 ** Describe cooperation and conflict among Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans

**5.3.3** Identify the major European powers that colonized North America and explain their goals, challenges, and achievements

**5.3.4** Compare and contrast religious groups that settled in colonial America and examine the role of religion in colonial communities

**5.3.5 ** Evaluate the motives that led to the establishment of the thirteen colonies

**5.3.6** Explain and give examples of how Native Americans, Europeans, and free and enslaved Africans adapted to living in the New England colonies, the Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies

**5.4.1** Differentiate between various types of maps using characteristics, functions, and applications

**5.4.2 ** Analyze a map using a variety of tools

**5.4.3** Analyze maps from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.5.1** Describe ways in which location and environment influenced the settlements and land use in colonial America

**5.5.2** Identify natural resources used by people of colonial America and describe the impact of human action on the physical environment

**5.6.1 ** Compare and contrast the different types of government in colonial America that influenced the development of the United States

**5.6.2** Summarize the key ideas that influenced the development of colonial governments and their influence on the growth of American democracy

**5.7.1** Investigate basic rights and responsibilities of citizens in present-day government

**5.8.1** Cite evidence of the economic motivations for European exploration and settlement in the Americas using economic concepts such as supply and demand and scarcity

**5.9.1 ** Describe trade between the Americas, Western Europe, and Western Africa during the colonial period

**5.9.2** Analyze the differences in the economies of the New England colonies, Middle colonies, and the Southern colonies

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How did the economy of Colonial America develop?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- How did the British colonies advance as civilizations?
- How does the structure of the modern U.S. government reflect that of the colonies?
- What contributed to regionalism of the British colonies?
- What were the effects of British colonial regionalism?
- Why did transatlantic trade expand as the British colonies advanced?
- How did transatlantic trade affect North America, Europe, and West Africa?
- How were both individuals and groups impacted by the slave trade?
- What value did the land west of the thirteen colonies possess and why?
- Why did cooperation and conflict exist among the British colonists, French colonists, and Native Americans?

## Unit 5 The French and Indian War

**Description:** Students explore the causes, events, and effects of the French and Indian War to understand why this war marked a turning point in colonial history and the role war plays in how civilizations develop.

### Social Studies Standards:

**5.1.1** Create a timeline of key events in early American history from pre-Columbian civilizations to 1763

**5.1.2** Examine primary and secondary sources to research early American colonial history from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.1.3** Compare and contrast different points of view of key individuals and groups in early colonial American history to 1763

**5.1.4** Produce clear and coherent writing for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences through the following tasks:

-Conducting historical research

-Evaluating a broad variety of primary and secondary sources

-Comparing and contrasting varied points of view

-Determining the meaning of words and phrases from historical texts

-Using technology to research, produce, or publish a written product

**5.3.2** Describe cooperation and conflict among Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans

**5.3.3** Identify the major European powers that colonized North America and explain their goals, challenges, and achievements

**5.3.7** Describe the impact of key people, ideas, and events that led to the French and Indian War

**5.4.1 ** Differentiate between various types of maps using characteristics, functions, and applications

**5.4.2 ** Analyze a map using a variety of tools

**5.4.3** Analyze maps from the Age of Exploration to 1763

**5.10.1** Explain the reasons for the French and Indian War and the economic effects of British policy on colonial America

### Enduring Understandings:

**Compelling Question:** How did the effects of the French and Indian War impact the development of the United States?

### Essential Questions:

**Supporting Questions:**

- What were the causes of the French and Indian War?
- What role did Native Americans play in the war and how did its outcome affect them?
- How did the outcome of the French and Indian War shift the balance of power in the New World?
- What were the consequences of the war for the British colonists?
- How did the war change the colonists’ relationship with Great Britain?
- How did the French and Indian War impact the development of the United States?