Unit 4

Multiplication and Area


Grade 3




Description: Students explore properties of operations and investigate area. Students measure the area of a shape by finding the total number of same-size units of area, e.g. tiles, required to cover the shape without gaps or overlaps. When that shape is a rectangle with whole number side lengths, it is easy to partition the rectangle into squares with equal areas and multiply.


Louisiana Student Standards for Mathematics (LSSM)

Instructional Outcomes


Major Cluster Standards

Geometric Measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition.



Recognize area as an attribute of plane figures and understand concepts of area measurement:

a. A square with side length 1 unit, called “a unit square,” is said to have “one square unit” of area, and can be used to measure area.

b. A plane figure which can be covered without gaps or overlaps by n unit squares is said to have an area of n square units.



Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).




Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition.

a. Find the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths by tiling it, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.

b. Multiply side lengths to find areas of rectangles with whole-number side lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems, and represent whole-number products as rectangular areas in mathematical reasoning.

c. Use tiling to show in a concrete case that the area of a rectangle with whole-number side lengths a and b + c is the sum of a × b and a × c. Use area models to represent the distributive property in mathematical reasoning.

Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division.



Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide. (Students need not use formal terms for these properties.) Examples: If 6 × 4 = 24 is known, then 4 × 6 = 24 is also known. (Commutative property of multiplication.) 3 × 5 × 2 can be found by 3 × 5 = 15, then 15 × 2 = 30, or by 5 × 2 = 10, then 3 × 10 = 30. (Associative property of multiplication.) Knowing that 8 × 5 = 40 and 8 × 2 = 16, one can find 8 × 7 as 8 × (5 + 2) = (8 × 5) + (8 × 2) = 40 + 16 = 56. (Distributive property.)

Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic.



Solve two-step word problems using the four operations. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.




Enduring Understandings:


·         The space inside a rectangle or square can be measured in square units.

·         There are several strategies that we can use for finding area:

o   Multiply side lengths

o   Break apart and distribute

·         It is important to know the best strategy to use for the problem.



Essential Questions:


·         What is the area?

·         Why is it important to know area in real life?

·         What strategies can I use to determine the area of an object?

·         How is area used in the world?